Landscape Ecology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10980

List of Papers (Total 136)

Diversity of bumblebees, heteropteran bugs and grasshoppers maintained by both: abandonment and extensive management of mountain meadows in three regions across the Austrian and Swiss Alps

Context Abandonment of extensively managed meadows is an ongoing global challenge in recent decades, particularly in mountain regions, and directly affects plant diversity. However, the extent to which plant diversity further affects associated insect pollinators or herbivores is little investigated. Objectives We focused on the effects of abandonment of mountain meadows on species ...

A bird’s eye view: using circuit theory to study urban landscape connectivity for birds

Context Connectivity is fundamental to understanding how landscape form influences ecological function. However, uncertainties persist due to the difficulty and expense of gathering empirical data to drive or to validate connectivity models, especially in urban areas, where relationships are multifaceted and the habitat matrix cannot be considered to be binary. Objectives This ...

Island biogeography theory outweighs habitat amount hypothesis in predicting plant species richness in small grassland remnants

Context The habitat amount hypothesis has rarely been tested on plant communities. It remains unclear how habitat amount affect species richness in habitat fragments compared to island effects such as isolation and patch size. Objectives How do patch size and spatial distribution compared to habitat amount predict plant species richness and grassland specialist plant species in ...

Urbanization and air quality as major drivers of altered spatiotemporal patterns of heavy rainfall in China

Context Land use/land cover change and other human activities contribute to the changing climate on regional and global scales, including the increasing occurrence of extreme-precipitation events, but the relative importance of these anthropogenic factors, as compared to climatic factors, remains unclear. Objectives The main goal of this study was to determine the relative ...

Multiple-scale prediction of forest loss risk across Borneo

Context The forests of Borneo have among the highest biodiversity and also the highest forest loss rates on the planet. Objectives Our objectives were to: (1) compare multiple modelling approaches, (2) evaluate the utility of landscape composition and configuration as predictors, (3) assess the influence of the ratio of forest loss and persistence points in the training sample, (4) ...

Why non-native grasses pose a critical emerging threat to biodiversity conservation, habitat connectivity and agricultural production in multifunctional rural landscapes

Context Landscape-scale conservation planning is key to the protection of biodiversity globally. Central to this approach is the development of multifunctional rural landscapes (MRLs) that maintain the viability of natural ecosystems and promote animal and plant dispersal alongside agricultural land uses. Objectives We investigate evidence that non-native grasses (NNGs) in ...

Landscape-scale mass-action of spiders explains early-season immigration rates in crops

Context Early-season immigration into arable fields by natural enemies is key for effective biocontrol, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying immigration processes. Objectives Here we test the mass action hypothesis for ballooning spiders, stating that local immigration rates are positively related to the amount of spiders in the surrounding landscape. Methods ...

Processes and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe

Context Cultural landscapes evolve over time. However, the rate and direction of change might not be in line with societal needs and more information on the forces driving these changes are therefore needed. Objectives Filling the gap between single case studies and meta-analyses, we present a comparative study of landscape changes and their driving forces based in six regions ...

Metapopulation modelling of long-term urban habitat-loss scenarios

Context Increasing human populations in urban areas pose a threat to species’ persistence through habitat loss and fragmentation. It is therefore essential that we develop methods to investigate critical habitat loss thresholds and least detrimental landscape configurations. Objectives We develop a framework to assess how the pattern of habitat loss impacts the ecological and ...

Cultural landscapes of the future: using agent-based modeling to discuss and develop the use and management of the cultural landscape of South West Devon

Context Hedgerows are typical landscape features of high environmental and cultural value that often have been sacrificed for agricultural intensification and scale enlargement. Objectives We studied the dynamics of hedgerow quality over time in a case study area renowned for its hedgerow landscapes: South West Devon (UK) answering the following research questions: (1) how does the ...

Agent-based modeling of complex social–ecological feedback loops to assess multi-dimensional trade-offs in dryland ecosystem services

Context Recent conceptual developments in ecosystem services research have revealed the need to elucidate the complex and unintended relationships between humans and the environment if we are to better understand and manage ecosystem services in practice. Objectives This study aimed to develop a model that spatially represents a complex human–environment (H–E) system consisting of ...

How many principles of urban ecology are there?

Context The nature of urban ecology theory is controversial. Issues include whether urban theory is distinct, whether it has principles, and whether those principles differ from those for non-urban systems. Recently, Richard Forman enumerated urban ecology principles, while we have previously articulated different urban ecology principles. This raises the question of whether there ...

Modelling shifts between mono- and multifunctional farming systems: the importance of social and economic drivers

Context In Europe, policy measures are starting to emerge that promote multifunctional farming systems and delivery of ecosystem services besides food production. Effectiveness of these policy instruments have to deal with ecological, economic and social complexities and with complexities in individual decisions of local actors leading to system shifts. Objective The objective of ...

Forecasts of urbanization scenarios reveal trade-offs between landscape change and ecosystem services

Context Expansion of urban settlements has caused observed declines in ecosystem services (ES) globally, further stressing the need for informed urban development and policies. Incorporating ES concepts into the decision making process has been shown to support resilient and functional ecosystems. Coupling land change and ES models allows for insights into the impacts and ...

Multifunctionality at what scale? A landscape multifunctionality assessment for the European Union under conditions of land use change

Context The provision of multiple ecosystem services (ES) within a landscape is commonly referred to as landscape multifunctionality. Modifying landscapes to increase multifunctionality and reduce trade-offs with concurrent services bears the potential to enhance sustainability in human-dominated landscapes. Assessing landscape multifunctionality is thus crucial for land management ...

Ecosystem services and connectivity in spatial conservation prioritization

Context Spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) concerns, for example, identification of spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation or for impact avoidance in economic development. Software useable for SCP include Marxan, C-Plan and Zonation. SCP is often based on data about the distributions of biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitats), costs, threats, and/or ...

Climate change and ecosystem composition across large landscapes

Context Climate change alters the vegetation composition and functioning of ecosystems. Measuring the magnitude, direction, and rate of changes in vegetation composition induced by climate remains a serious and unmet challenge. Such information is required for a predictive capability of how individual ecosystem will respond to future climates. Objectives Our objectives were to ...

Landscape relatedness: detecting contemporary fine-scale spatial structure in wild populations

Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect ...

Additive and synergistic effects of land cover, land use and climate on insect biodiversity

Context We address the issue of adapting landscapes for improved insect biodiversity conservation in a changing climate by assessing the importance of additive (main) and synergistic (interaction) effects of land cover and land use with climate. Objectives We test the hypotheses that ant richness (species and genus), abundance and diversity would vary according to land cover and ...

Multi-scale assessment of human-induced changes to Amazonian instream habitats

Context Land use change and forest degradation have myriad effects on tropical ecosystems. Yet their consequences for low-order streams remain very poorly understood, including in the world´s largest freshwater basin, the Amazon. Objectives Determine the degree to which physical and chemical characteristics of the instream habitat of low-order Amazonian streams change in response ...

Changing landscapes by damming: the Three Gorges Dam causes downstream lake shrinkage and severe droughts

Context The world’s largest dam—the Three Gorges Dam (TGD)—has been in operation for more than 10 years. While the recent shrinkage of large lakes and increased severe droughts in the downstream have been subjectively ascribed to TGD, empirical support based on thorough analysis is still lacking, leaving a gap for ecologists to quantify the TGD impacts on the surrounding ...