Annals of Oncology

List of Papers (Total 6,734)

Clinical outcomes of melanoma brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery and anti-PD-1 therapy, anti-CTLA-4 therapy, BRAF/MEK inhibitors, BRAF inhibitor, or conventional chemotherapy

Background The effect of immunologic and targeted agents on intracranial response rates in patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) is not yet clearly understood. This report analyzes outcomes of intact MBMs treated with single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and anti-PD-1 therapy, anti-CTLA-4 therapy, BRAF/MEK inhibitors(i), BRAFi, or conventional chemotherapy.

Validation and development of MTH1 inhibitors for treatment of cancer

Background Previously, we showed cancer cells rely on the MTH1 protein to prevent incorporation of otherwise deadly oxidised nucleotides into DNA and we developed MTH1 inhibitors which selectively kill cancer cells. Recently, several new and potent inhibitors of MTH1 were demonstrated to be non-toxic to cancer cells, challenging the utility of MTH1 inhibition as a target for cancer ...

Safety and efficacy of nivolumab and standard chemotherapy drug combination in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a four arms phase Ib study

Background The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Perspectives of health care professionals on cancer cachexia: results from three global surveys

Background Cachexia has a high prevalence in cancer patients and negatively impacts prognosis, quality of life (QOL), and tolerance/response to treatments. This study reports the results of three surveys designed to gain insights into cancer cachexia (CC) awareness, understanding, and treatment practices among health care professionals (HCPs).

Ramucirumab combined with FOLFOX as front-line therapy for advanced esophageal, gastroesophageal junction, or gastric adenocarcinoma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter Phase II trial†

Background We report the first randomized, Phase II trial of ramucirumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 monoclonal antibody, as front-line therapy in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).

Metformin as an adjuvant treatment for cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Metformin use has been associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer and an improvement in overall cancer survival rates in meta-analyses, but, to date, evidence to support the use of metformin as an adjuvant therapy in individual cancer types has not been presented.

Hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with solid tumors receiving systemic anticancer treatment

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a well-known risk during chemotherapy for hematological malignancies with reported rates ranging between 14% and 72%. However, there is a paucity of data regarding HBV infection management and reactivation risk in patients receiving systemic treatments for solid tumors.

Antibody drug conjugates: lessons from 20 years of clinical experience

Antibody drug conjugates are complex delivery systems for selective delivery of cytotoxic payloads. Yet despite the potential for this therapeutic platform and hundreds of clinical studies only three ADCs have been approved by regulatory agencies and only two are currently marketed. The difficulties for this class of compounds are both categorized and explored in this review, and ...

Statistical controversies in clinical research: prognostic gene signatures are not (yet) useful in clinical practice

With the genomic revolution and the era of targeted therapy, prognostic and predictive gene signatures are becoming increasingly important in clinical research. They are expected to assist prognosis assessment and therapeutic decision making. Notwithstanding, an evidence-based approach is needed to bring gene signatures from the laboratory to clinical practice. In early breast ...

ESMO consensus conference on malignant lymphoma: general perspectives and recommendations for prognostic tools in mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop recommendations on critical subjects difficult to consider in detail in the ESMO Clinical ...

Chromoplectic TPM3–ALK rearrangement in a patient with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor who responded to ceritinib after progression on crizotinib

Background Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare sarcomas that can occur at any age. Surgical resection is the primary treatment for patients with localized disease; however, these tumors frequently recur. Less commonly, patients with IMTs develop or present with metastatic disease. There is no standard of care for these patients and traditional cytotoxic therapy is ...

Sorafenib plus hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with cisplatin versus sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: randomized phase II trial

Background Sorafenib (Sor) is acknowledged as a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with cisplatin (SorCDDP) to Sor for the treatment of advanced HCC.

Subgroup analysis in RAISE: a randomized, double-blind phase III study of irinotecan, folinic acid, and 5-fluorouracil (FOLFIRI) plus ramucirumab or placebo in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma progression†

Background The RAISE phase III clinical trial demonstrated that ramucirumab + FOLFIRI improved overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.844, P = 0.0219] and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 0.793, P < 0.0005) compared with placebo + FOLFIRI for second-line metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients previously treated with first-line bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, and a ...

Phase III trial comparing 3–6 months of adjuvant FOLFOX4/XELOX in stage II–III colon cancer: safety and compliance in the TOSCA trial†

Background Six months of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard of care for radically resected stage III colon cancer and an accepted option for high-risk stage II. A shorter duration of therapy, if equally efficacious, would be advantageous for patients and Health-Care Systems.

Final results of the TANIA randomised phase III trial of bevacizumab after progression on first-line bevacizumab therapy for HER2-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer

Background The randomised phase III TANIA trial demonstrated that continuing bevacizumab with second-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC) after progression on first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with chemotherapy alone [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) ...

No ‘cure’ within 12 years of diagnosis among breast cancer patients who are diagnosed via mammographic screening: women diagnosed in the West Midlands region of England 1989–2011

Background We have previously reported that there is little evidence of population ‘cure’ among two populations of women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. ‘Cure’ has not yet been examined in the context of screen-detection.

Global trends and predictions in ovarian cancer mortality

Background Over the last two decades, ovarian cancer mortality rates have levelled or declined. There are, however, persisting and substantial differences in ovarian cancer patterns and trends.

Predictors of chemotherapy efficacy in non-small-cell lung cancer: a challenging landscape

Background Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy (CCC) is the backbone of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment since decades and still represents a key element of the therapeutic armamentarium. Contrary to molecularly targeted therapies and immune therapies, for which predictive biomarkers of activity have been actively looked for and developed in parallel to the drug ...

Fertility-sparing surgery in epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review of oncological issues

Since the last two decades, the feasibility of fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been explored by several teams and is reconsidered in this systematic review undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. Borderline ovarian tumours and non-EOCs were excluded. This review comprises 1150 patients and 139 relapsing patients reported by 21 ...

The obese endometrial cancer patient: how do we effectively improve morbidity and mortality in this patient population?

The relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and endometrial cancer has been established and accepted for decades. However, despite this understanding, endometrial cancer patients continue to die of their obesity-related comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, studies show that gynecologic oncologists, general obstetrician/gynecologists, and ...

Distinct subclonal tumour responses to therapy revealed by circulating cell-free DNA

Background The application of precision medicine in oncology requires in-depth characterisation of a patient's tumours and the dynamics of their responses to treatment.

Temporal and spatial discordance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression and lymphocyte tumor infiltration between paired primary lesions and brain metastases in lung cancer

Background The dynamics of PD-L1 expression may limit its use as a tissue-based predictive biomarker. We sought to expand our understanding of the dynamics of PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with lung cancer-related brain metastases.

Prospective assessment of a gene signature potentially predictive of clinical benefit in metastatic melanoma patients following MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic (PREDICT)

Background Genomic profiling of tumor tissue may aid in identifying predictive or prognostic gene signatures (GS) in some cancers. Retrospective gene expression profiling of melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer led to the characterization of a GS associated with clinical benefit, including improved overall survival (OS), following immunization with the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic. ...

Effect of nivolumab on health-related quality of life in patients with treatment-naïve advanced melanoma: results from the phase III CheckMate 066 study

Background Nivolumab has shown significant survival benefit and a favorable safety profile compared with dacarbazine chemotherapy among treatment-naïve patients with metastatic melanoma in the CheckMate 066 phase III study. Results from the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) analyses from CheckMate 066 are presented.