Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 4,391)

The Potential for Treatment Shortening With Higher Rifampicin Doses: Relating Drug Exposure to Treatment Response in Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis remains a huge public health problem and the prolonged treatment duration obstructs effective tuberculosis control. Higher rifampicin doses have been associated with better bactericidal activity, but optimal dosing is uncertain. This analysis aimed to characterize the relationship between rifampicin plasma exposure and treatment response over 6 months in a recent...

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) POSITION STATEMENT: Why IDSA Did Not Endorse the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines

IDSA did not endorse the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines despite being represented in the working group that drafted the guidelines document. Leadership from the IDSA, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, and the Society of Critical Care Medicine had numerous amicable discussions primarily regarding the bolded, rated guidelines recommendations. Our societies had...

Outbreak of Severe Histoplasmosis Among Tunnel Workers—Dominican Republic, 2015

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection associated with exposure to bat guano. An outbreak of an unknown severe febrile illness occurred among tunnel workers in the Dominican Republic, and resulted in several deaths. We conducted an investigation to confirm etiology and recommend control measures.

Trends and Predictors of Syphilis Prevalence in the General Population: Global Pooled Analyses of 1103 Prevalence Measures Including 136 Million Syphilis Tests

This study assessed levels, trends, and associations of observed syphilis prevalence in the general adult population using global pooled analyses.

Perceived Quality of In-Service Communication and Counseling Among Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

Experience with providers shapes the quality of adolescent health services, including voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). This study examined the perceived quality of in-service communication and counseling during adolescent VMMC services.

Providers’ Perceptions and Training Needs for Counseling Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

The majority of individuals who seek voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services in sub-Saharan Africa are adolescents (ages 10–19 years). However, adolescents who obtain VMMC services report receiving little information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and care. In this study, we assessed the perceptions of VMMC facility managers and providers about...

Scaling Up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention for Adolescents and Young Adult Men: A Modeling Analysis of Implementation and Impact in Selected Countries

The new World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS strategic framework for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) aims to increase VMMC coverage among males aged 10–29 years in priority settings to 90% by 2021. We use mathematical modeling to assess the likelihood that selected countries will achieve this objective, given their historical VMMC...

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Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Burden and Severity of Influenza Illness in Malawian Adults: A Prospective Cohort and Parallel Case-Control Study

The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings but is rarely implemented in Africa.

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No Clinical Benefit of Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Diarrhea in a High-Usage, High-Resistance Setting

Pediatric diarrheal disease presents a major public health burden in low- to middle-income countries. The clinical benefits of empirical antimicrobial treatment for diarrhea are unclear in settings that lack reliable diagnostics and have high antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

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A Case of Adult Intestinal Toxemia Botulism During Prolonged Hospitalization in an Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipient

We report a laboratory-confirmed case of adult intestinal toxemia botulism in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipient. Onset of symptoms occurred within the hospitalized setting, making this case particularly unique. Botulism may have arisen because of significant intestinal disruption and compromise, and not directly from immune compromise.

A Case of Localized, Unilateral (Cephalic) Wound Botulism

We describe a rare presentation of botulism originally presenting with exclusively unilateral cranial nerve deficits following a puncture wound to the face. Cephalic tetanus was initially suspected but laboratory testing confirmed botulism. Botulism caused by local diffusion of toxin from a contaminated head wound can be confused with cephalic tetanus.

Safety and Improved Clinical Outcomes in Patients Treated With New Equine-Derived Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin

Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic illness. Equine-derived heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT), the only currently available treatment for noninfant botulism in the United States, was licensed in 2013. No reports have systematically examined safety and clinical benefit of HBAT among botulism patients.

Efficacy of Antitoxin Therapy in Treating Patients With Foodborne Botulism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cases, 1923–2016

Botulism is a rare, potentially severe illness, often fatal if not appropriately treated. Data on treatment are sparse. We systematically evaluated the literature on botulinum antitoxin and other treatments.

Botulism During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: A Systematic Review

Maternal and fetal outcomes associated with botulism and botulinum antitoxin use during pregnancy and the postpartum period have not been systematically reviewed.