Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is common after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Risk for death from GVHD has been associated with low bacterial diversity in the stool microbiota early after transplant; however, the specific species associated with GVHD risk remain poorly defined.
We aimed to provide the first comprehensive estimates of the burden of group B Streptococcus (GBS), including invasive disease in pregnant and postpartum women, fetal infection/stillbirth, and infants. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the current mainstay of prevention, reducing early-onset infant disease in high-income contexts. Maternal GBS vaccines are in development.
We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America.
Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low- and middle-income countries where tuberculosis burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamin A and carotenoids on tuberculosis disease risk.
Marijuana use is prevalent among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but its long-term effects on HIV disease progression and comorbidities are unknown.
Since 2014, 17 human cases of infection with the newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus have been identified in China to date. The epidemiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed A(H5N6) cases were compared to A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) cases in mainland China.
We compared xenodiagnosis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skin biopsies from 3 patients with maculopapular or nodular post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). All patients infected sand flies. Parasite loads in skin varied from 1428 to 63 058 parasites per microgram. PKDL detection and treatment are important missing components of the kala-azar elimination program.
Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB.
The impact of PCV13 on a number of clinical aspects of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) in children has not been reported. We compared the serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes of children with PP 4 years before and 4 years after the introduction of PCV13.
Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRAs) enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription in vivo but leads to only modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule—a novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703—could function as an...
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines delineate criteria for the use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head before lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with community-acquired meningitis (CAM). There are limited data to document adherence to these guidelines and assess the clinical utility of brain imaging.
The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable...
Urban emergency departments (EDs) seem to be able to detect new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections at a high rate, but it is unknown the extent to which individuals screened in the ED can progress to treatment and cure. We evaluate the HCV Continuum of Care for patients identified with HCV in 2 urban EDs, and consider the results in the context of outcomes from ambulatory...
The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) conducts the advanced research and development and procurement of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats, pandemic influenza, and emerging infectious diseases. Since its inception in 2006, BARDA has played a critical role in partnering with...
Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes.
A Sabin strain–based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine.