Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 5,112)

Long-term Clinical Outcomes in Visceral Leishmaniasis/Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Coinfected Patients During and After Pentamidine Secondary Prophylaxis in Ethiopia: A Single-Arm Clinical Trial

We have conducted a single-arm trial evaluating monthly pentamidine secondary prophylaxis (PSP) to prevent visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse in Ethiopian human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients. Outcomes at 12 months of PSP have been previously reported, supporting PSP effectiveness and safety. However, remaining relapse-free after PSP discontinuation is vital. We now...

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A Case of Adult Intestinal Toxemia Botulism During Prolonged Hospitalization in an Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipient

We report a laboratory-confirmed case of adult intestinal toxemia botulism in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipient. Onset of symptoms occurred within the hospitalized setting, making this case particularly unique. Botulism may have arisen because of significant intestinal disruption and compromise, and not directly from immune compromise.

A Case of Localized, Unilateral (Cephalic) Wound Botulism

We describe a rare presentation of botulism originally presenting with exclusively unilateral cranial nerve deficits following a puncture wound to the face. Cephalic tetanus was initially suspected but laboratory testing confirmed botulism. Botulism caused by local diffusion of toxin from a contaminated head wound can be confused with cephalic tetanus.

Type F Infant Botulism: Investigation of Recent Clusters and Overview of This Exceedingly Rare Disease

From 1976 to 2016, neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F caused 18 (<0.5%) reported US infant botulism cases. Six cases occurred during 2012–2013; no common source was identified. Type F infant botulism mostly occurs in very young infants and typically presents more rapidly and severely than illness caused by types A and B botulinum neurotoxin.

Safety and Improved Clinical Outcomes in Patients Treated With New Equine-Derived Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin

Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic illness. Equine-derived heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT), the only currently available treatment for noninfant botulism in the United States, was licensed in 2013. No reports have systematically examined safety and clinical benefit of HBAT among botulism patients.

Efficacy of Antitoxin Therapy in Treating Patients With Foodborne Botulism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cases, 1923–2016

Botulism is a rare, potentially severe illness, often fatal if not appropriately treated. Data on treatment are sparse. We systematically evaluated the literature on botulinum antitoxin and other treatments.

Botulism During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: A Systematic Review

Maternal and fetal outcomes associated with botulism and botulinum antitoxin use during pregnancy and the postpartum period have not been systematically reviewed.

Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection in a Child With Encephalitis Complicated by Obstructive Hydrocephalus

A 2-year-old boy with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection with minimal respiratory symptoms developed encephalitis complicated by obstructive hydrocephalus. Viral RNA was detectable in cerebrospinal fluid. The virus belonged to H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1b and had acquired the mammalian adaptation mutation PB2 Q591K.

Disability Among Ebola Survivors and Their Close Contacts in Sierra Leone: A Retrospective Case-Controlled Cohort Study

Ebola survivors (21/27 [77.8%]) suffered more disability than their close contacts (6/54 [11.1%]) (adjusted odds ratio, 23.5 [95% confidence interval, 6.5–85.7]; P < .001) when measured by the Washington Group Disability Extended Questionnaire. Major limitations in vision, mobility, cognition, and affect were observed in survivors 1 year following the 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak...

The Manufacturers’ Perspective on World Health Organization Prequalification of In Vitro Diagnostics

In vitro diagnostic devices (IVDs) help clinicians determine specific conditions, monitor therapeutic efficacy, and prevent drug resistance development. While stringent regulatory authorities (SRAs) regulate IVDs in most high-income countries, regulatory authorities in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are nonexistent or do not enforce rigorous standards. In 2010, the...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Chronic Lung Disease in Children and Adolescents in Zimbabwe: Chest Radiographic and High-Resolution Computed Tomographic Findings

Chronic respiratory symptoms are common among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated the radiological features of chronic lung disease in children aged 6–16 years receiving antiretroviral therapy for ≥6 months in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Acute Retinal Necrosis Caused by the Zoster Vaccine Virus

We report acute retinal necrosis caused by the vaccine Oka strain following immunization of a 78-year-old woman with live zoster vaccine. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the ocular vOka strain to be derived from the vaccine and excluded the presence of new mutations or recombination with wild-type Varicella zoster virus.

Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Therapy of Travelers’ Diarrhea (TrEAT TD) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 3 Single-Dose Antibiotic Regimens With Loperamide

Recommended treatment for travelers’ diarrhea includes the combination of an antibiotic, usually a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin, and loperamide for rapid resolution of symptoms. However, adverse events, postdose nausea with high-dose azithromycin, effectiveness of single-dose rifaximin, and emerging resistance to front-line agents are evidence gaps underlying current...

Stool Microbiota at Neutrophil Recovery Is Predictive for Severe Acute Graft vs Host Disease After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is common after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Risk for death from GVHD has been associated with low bacterial diversity in the stool microbiota early after transplant; however, the specific species associated with GVHD risk remain poorly defined.

Erratum

Influenza Among Young Children in Bangladesh: Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes From a Randomized Clinical Trial

Influenza causes substantial morbidity in children worldwide, although influenza vaccine is seldom used in low-resource settings. More information on the clinical presentation of influenza and the efficacy of vaccine is needed to inform policy.

Adults Hospitalized With Pneumonia in the United States: Incidence, Epidemiology, and Mortality

Understanding the burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is critical to allocate resources for prevention, management, and research. The objectives of this study were to define incidence, epidemiology, and mortality of adult patients hospitalized with CAP in the city of Louisville, and to estimate burden of CAP in the US adult population.

Estimates of the Burden of Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide for Pregnant Women, Stillbirths, and Children

We aimed to provide the first comprehensive estimates of the burden of group B Streptococcus (GBS), including invasive disease in pregnant and postpartum women, fetal infection/stillbirth, and infants. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the current mainstay of prevention, reducing early-onset infant disease in high-income contexts. Maternal GBS vaccines are in development.

Infant Group B Streptococcal Disease Incidence and Serotypes Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis in high-income contexts, despite declines due to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Recent evidence suggests higher incidence in Africa, where IAP is rare. We investigated the global incidence of infant invasive GBS disease and the associated serotypes, updating previous estimates.

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Pathways in the Pathophysiology of Dengue: A Prospective Observational Study

Dengue can cause increased vascular permeability that may lead to hypovolemic shock. Endothelial dysfunction may underlie this; however, the association of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathways with disease severity is unknown.

Plasma Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase, a Biomarker for Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

There is no biomarker for diagnosing active tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that breaks down tryptophan (Trp) to metabolites known as kynurenines (Kyns). We investigated whether IDO activity, as measured by the ratio of Kyn to Trp, could be used to diagnose or predict...