Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 5,112)

Comparison of Kaposi Sarcoma Risk in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adults Across 5 Continents: A Multiregional Multicohort Study

We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America.

Impact of Vitamin A and Carotenoids on the Risk of Tuberculosis Progression

Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low- and middle-income countries where tuberculosis burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamin A and carotenoids on tuberculosis disease risk.

Marijuana Use Impacts Midlife Cardiovascular Events in HIV-Infected Men

Marijuana use is prevalent among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but its long-term effects on HIV disease progression and comorbidities are unknown.

Preliminary Epidemiologic Assessment of Human Infections With Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, China

Since 2014, 17 human cases of infection with the newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus have been identified in China to date. The epidemiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed A(H5N6) cases were compared to A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) cases in mainland China.

Errata

Adjunctive Corticosteroid Therapy in the Treatment of Coccidioidal Meningitis

Coccidioidal meningitis (CM) has high morbidity, and adjunctive measures to improve outcomes are needed. Using an established multicenter retrospective cohort study of CM (N = 221), we found that patients receiving adjunctive corticosteroids had a significant reduction in secondary cerebrovascular events (P = .0049). Those with CM-associated cerebrovascular events (8%) may...

Infectivity of Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Patients to Sand Flies: Revisiting a Proof of Concept in the Context of the Kala-azar Elimination Program in the Indian Subcontinent

We compared xenodiagnosis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skin biopsies from 3 patients with maculopapular or nodular post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). All patients infected sand flies. Parasite loads in skin varied from 1428 to 63 058 parasites per microgram. PKDL detection and treatment are important missing components of the kala-azar elimination program.

Matrix Degradation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Associated Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective Observational Study

Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB.

Contribution of Serologic Assays in the Evaluation of Influenza Virus Infection Rates and Vaccine Efficacy in Pregnant Women: Report From Randomized Controlled Trials

The utility of serologic testing to evaluate vaccine efficacy of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of IIV against serologically diagnosed influenza infection (SDI) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction–confirmed influenza illness (PCR-CI) in women vaccinated during pregnancy.

Short-Course Adjunctive Gentamicin as Empirical Therapy in Patients With Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

Metaanalyses failed to demonstrate clinical benefits of beta lactam plus aminoglycoside combination therapy compared to beta lactam monotherapy in patients with sepsis. However, few data exist on the effects of short-course adjunctive aminoglycoside therapy in sepsis patients with organ failure or shock.

Differentiated Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA Monitoring in Resource-Limited Settings: An Economic Analysis

Viral load (VL) monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended worldwide. However, the costs of frequent monitoring are a barrier to implementation in resource-limited settings. The extent to which personalized monitoring frequencies may be cost-effective is unknown.

Pneumococcal Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization in US Children in the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Era

The impact of PCV13 on a number of clinical aspects of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) in children has not been reported. We compared the serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes of children with PP 4 years before and 4 years after the introduction of PCV13.

Short-Course Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist Treatment Impacts Innate Immunity and Plasma Viremia in Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRAs) enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription in vivo but leads to only modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule—a novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703—could function as an...

Cranial Imaging Before Lumbar Puncture in Adults With Community-Acquired Meningitis: Clinical Utility and Adherence to the Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines delineate criteria for the use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head before lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with community-acquired meningitis (CAM). There are limited data to document adherence to these guidelines and assess the clinical utility of brain imaging.

Safety of Induced Sputum Collection in Children Hospitalized With Severe or Very Severe Pneumonia

Induced sputum (IS) may provide diagnostic information about the etiology of pneumonia. The safety of this procedure across a heterogeneous population with severe pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries has not been described.

Data Management and Data Quality in PERCH, a Large International Case-Control Study of Severe Childhood Pneumonia

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable...

The Enduring Challenge of Determining Pneumonia Etiology in Children: Considerations for Future Research Priorities

Pneumonia kills more children each year worldwide than any other disease. Nonetheless, accurately determining the causes of childhood pneumonia has remained elusive. Over the past century, the focus of pneumonia etiology research has shifted from studies of lung aspirates and postmortem specimens intent on identifying pneumococcal disease to studies of multiple specimen types...