Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 4,248)

Short-Course Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist Treatment Impacts Innate Immunity and Plasma Viremia in Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRAs) enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription in vivo but leads to only modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule—a novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703—could function as an...

Cranial Imaging Before Lumbar Puncture in Adults With Community-Acquired Meningitis: Clinical Utility and Adherence to the Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines delineate criteria for the use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head before lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with community-acquired meningitis (CAM). There are limited data to document adherence to these guidelines and assess the clinical utility of brain imaging.

Data Management and Data Quality in PERCH, a Large International Case-Control Study of Severe Childhood Pneumonia

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable...

The Enduring Challenge of Determining Pneumonia Etiology in Children: Considerations for Future Research Priorities

Pneumonia kills more children each year worldwide than any other disease. Nonetheless, accurately determining the causes of childhood pneumonia has remained elusive. Over the past century, the focus of pneumonia etiology research has shifted from studies of lung aspirates and postmortem specimens intent on identifying pneumococcal disease to studies of multiple specimen types...

Continuum of Care for Hepatitis C Virus Among Patients Diagnosed in the Emergency Department Setting

Urban emergency departments (EDs) seem to be able to detect new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections at a high rate, but it is unknown the extent to which individuals screened in the ED can progress to treatment and cure. We evaluate the HCV Continuum of Care for patients identified with HCV in 2 urban EDs, and consider the results in the context of outcomes from ambulatory...

Project BioShield and the Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority: A 10-Year Progress Report on Meeting US Preparedness Objectives for Threat Agents

The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) conducts the advanced research and development and procurement of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats, pandemic influenza, and emerging infectious diseases. Since its inception in 2006, BARDA has played a critical role in partnering with...

Antiretrovirals, Fractures, and Osteonecrosis in a Large International HIV Cohort

Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes.

Immune Serum From Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Immunization Neutralizes Multiple Individual Wild and Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses

A Sabin strain–based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine.

Zero Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Lessons Learned From Thailand

New emerging pathogens can quickly become a global health threat in this era. A number of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks have been linked to healthcare facilities. The healthcare-associated transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been attributed to overcrowding, delayed diagnosis, and the breakdown of infection control...

Antimicrobial Stewardship in Surgery: Challenges and Opportunities

Antibiotic stewardship programs have been playing an increasingly important role in patient care and hospital policies. The role of these programs in surgical care presents several unique challenges and opportunities, most notably in the perioperative setting. Controversy remains regarding optimal antibiotic choice, dosage, and length of prophylaxis. Here, we review current best...

Limitations of Rapid Diagnostic Testing in Patients with Suspected Malaria: A Diagnostic Accuracy Evaluation from Swaziland, a Low-Endemicity Country Aiming for Malaria Elimination

The performance of Plasmodium falciparum–specific histidine-rich protein 2–based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to evaluate suspected malaria in low-endemicity settings has not been well characterized.

Epidemiology of Multiple Herpes Viremia in Previously Immunocompetent Patients With Septic Shock

Systemic reactivations of herpesviruses may occur in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, even in those without prior immune deficiency. However, the clinical relevance of these events is uncertain.

Association of the HLA-B*53:01 Allele With Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome During Treatment of HIV Infection With Raltegravir

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare, severe adverse event during treatment with raltegravir. The occurrence of DRESS syndrome during treatment with other drugs is strongly associated with particular HLA alleles.

Eight Habits of Highly Effective Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs to Meet the Joint Commission Standards for Hospitals

In an effort to decrease antimicrobial resistance and inappropriate antibiotic use, The Joint Commission (TJC) recently issued new antimicrobial stewardship standards, consisting of 8 elements of performance, applicable to hospitals effective January 1, 2017. These standards coincide with those recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society of...

Evaluation of Modified 2-Tiered Serodiagnostic Testing Algorithms for Early Lyme Disease

The conventional 2-tiered serologic testing protocol for Lyme disease (LD), an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G Western blots, performs well in late-stage LD but is insensitive in patients with erythema migrans (EM), the most common manifestation of the illness. Western blots are also complex, difficult to interpret, and relatively...