Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 4,248)

Diffuse White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Associated With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System Among Patients With Neurological Symptoms

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can replicate independently in extravascular compartments such as the central nervous system, resulting in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discordance (viral load [VL] in CSF 0.5 log10 copies HIV-1 RNA greater than plasma VL) or escape (detection of HIV VL >50 copies/mL in CSF in patients with suppressed plasma VL <50 copies/mL). Both...

Primary Prophylaxis for Cryptococcosis With Fluconazole in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patients With CD4 T-Cell Counts <100 Cells/µL and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 302 human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count <100 cells/µL and negative serum cryptococcal antigen initiating antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. During 2-year follow-up, there were no differences of survival rates and occurrences of newly diagnosed cryptococcosis between...

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Anti-HEV Immunoglobulin G-Carrying Patients After Successful Hepatitis C Virus Treatment: Reactivation or Reinfection?

Although hepatitis E virus (HEV) is regarded as a self-limiting infection and anti-HEV antibodies seem to protect against reinfection, its pathogenesis is not well established. We describe 2 cases of acute symptomatic HEV infection after hepatitis C therapy in patients carrying anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies, raising 2 major questions: reactivation or reinfection?

Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome

Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days).

Ultra-Short-Course Antibiotics for Patients With Suspected Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia but Minimal and Stable Ventilator Settings

Many patients started on antibiotics for possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) do not have pneumonia. Patients with minimal and stable ventilator settings may be suitable candidates for early antibiotic discontinuation. We compared outcomes among patients with suspected VAP but minimal and stable ventilator settings treated with 1–3 days vs >3 days of antibiotics.

Occupational HIV Infection in a Research Laboratory With Unknown Mode of Transmission: A Case Report

A laboratory worker was infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in a biosafety level 2 containment facility, without any apparent breach. Through full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we could identify the source of infection in a replication-competent clone that unknowingly contaminated a safe experiment. Mode of transmission remains unclear. Caution...

Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in...

A Risk Assessment Tool for Identifying Pregnant and Postpartum Women Who May Benefit From Preexposure Prophylaxis

A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk assessment tool for pregnant women could identify women who would most benefit from preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) while minimizing unnecessary PrEP exposure.

Diabetes Mellitus and Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Systemic Review and Metaanalysis

Despite the well-documented association between diabetes and active tuberculosis, evidence of the association between diabetes and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains limited and inconsistent.

2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthcare-Associated Ventriculitis and Meningitis

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Standards and Practice Guidelines Committee collaborated with partner organizations to convene a panel of 10 experts on healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. The panel represented pediatric and adult specialists in the field of infectious diseases and represented other organizations whose members care for patients...

Title Page

The Role of Stewardship in Addressing Antibacterial Resistance: Stewardship and Infection Control Committee of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group

Antibacterial resistance is increasing globally and has been recognized as a major public health threat. Antibacterial stewardship is the coordinated effort to improve the appropriate use of antibiotics with the aim to decrease selective pressure for multidrug-resistant organisms in order to preserve the utility of antibacterial agents. This article describes the activities of...

Transforming Concepts Into Clinical Trials and Creating a Multisite Network: The Leadership and Operations Center of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group

The Leadership and Operations Center (LOC) is responsible for facilitating, coordinating, and implementing the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) scientific agenda by engaging thought leaders; soliciting research proposals; and developing the processes, tools, and infrastructure required to operationalize studies and create and sustain the ARLG network. These...

Transient Myocarditis Associated With Acute Zika Virus Infection

Zika virus outbreak is spreading in the Americas. This emerging infection is associated with neurological complication. We report the first travel-acquired Zika acute infection complicated with myocarditis imported to mainland France. We recommend an electrocardiogram and troponin if any cardiac symptoms are present in a patient with acute Zika infection.