Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 5,723)

Short-Course Adjunctive Gentamicin as Empirical Therapy in Patients With Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

Metaanalyses failed to demonstrate clinical benefits of beta lactam plus aminoglycoside combination therapy compared to beta lactam monotherapy in patients with sepsis. However, few data exist on the effects of short-course adjunctive aminoglycoside therapy in sepsis patients with organ failure or shock.

Differentiated Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA Monitoring in Resource-Limited Settings: An Economic Analysis

Viral load (VL) monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended worldwide. However, the costs of frequent monitoring are a barrier to implementation in resource-limited settings. The extent to which personalized monitoring frequencies may be cost-effective is unknown.

Pneumococcal Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization in US Children in the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Era

The impact of PCV13 on a number of clinical aspects of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) in children has not been reported. We compared the serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes of children with PP 4 years before and 4 years after the introduction of PCV13.

Short-Course Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist Treatment Impacts Innate Immunity and Plasma Viremia in Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRAs) enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription in vivo but leads to only modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule—a novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703—could function as an...

Cranial Imaging Before Lumbar Puncture in Adults With Community-Acquired Meningitis: Clinical Utility and Adherence to the Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines delineate criteria for the use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head before lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with community-acquired meningitis (CAM). There are limited data to document adherence to these guidelines and assess the clinical utility of brain imaging.

Detection of Pneumococcal DNA in Blood by Polymerase Chain Reaction for Diagnosing Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Young Children From Low- and Middle-Income Countries

We investigated the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia among children from 7 low- and middle-income countries.

Safety of Induced Sputum Collection in Children Hospitalized With Severe or Very Severe Pneumonia

Induced sputum (IS) may provide diagnostic information about the etiology of pneumonia. The safety of this procedure across a heterogeneous population with severe pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries has not been described.

Data Management and Data Quality in PERCH, a Large International Case-Control Study of Severe Childhood Pneumonia

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable...

The Enduring Challenge of Determining Pneumonia Etiology in Children: Considerations for Future Research Priorities

Pneumonia kills more children each year worldwide than any other disease. Nonetheless, accurately determining the causes of childhood pneumonia has remained elusive. Over the past century, the focus of pneumonia etiology research has shifted from studies of lung aspirates and postmortem specimens intent on identifying pneumococcal disease to studies of multiple specimen types...

Repeated Vaccination Does Not Appear to Impact Upon Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Hospitalization With Confirmed Influenza

Annual influenza vaccine is recommended for those at greatest risk of severe influenza infection. Recent reports of a negative impact of serial influenza vaccination on vaccine effectiveness (VE) raises concerns about the recommendation for annual influenza vaccines, particularly in persons at greatest risk.

Continuum of Care for Hepatitis C Virus Among Patients Diagnosed in the Emergency Department Setting

Urban emergency departments (EDs) seem to be able to detect new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections at a high rate, but it is unknown the extent to which individuals screened in the ED can progress to treatment and cure. We evaluate the HCV Continuum of Care for patients identified with HCV in 2 urban EDs, and consider the results in the context of outcomes from ambulatory...

Project BioShield and the Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority: A 10-Year Progress Report on Meeting US Preparedness Objectives for Threat Agents

The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) conducts the advanced research and development and procurement of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats, pandemic influenza, and emerging infectious diseases. Since its inception in 2006, BARDA has played a critical role in partnering with...

Practical Review of Recognition and Management of Obesity and Lipohypertrophy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Obesity and lipohypertrophy are common in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and contribute to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Antiretrovirals, Fractures, and Osteonecrosis in a Large International HIV Cohort

Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes.

Echinocandins Compared to Fluconazole for Candidemia of a Urinary Tract Source: A Propensity Score Analysis

Whether echinocandins could be used to treat candidemia of a urinary tract source (CUTS) is unknown. We aimed to provide current epidemiological information of CUTS and to compare echinocandin to fluconazole treatment on CUTS outcomes.

Immune Serum From Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Immunization Neutralizes Multiple Individual Wild and Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses

A Sabin strain–based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine.

Zero Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Lessons Learned From Thailand

New emerging pathogens can quickly become a global health threat in this era. A number of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks have been linked to healthcare facilities. The healthcare-associated transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been attributed to overcrowding, delayed diagnosis, and the breakdown of infection control...

Effectiveness of Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Synbiotic Therapies in Reducing Postoperative Complications: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis

Microbiome-directed therapies are increasingly used preoperatively and postoperatively to improve postoperative outcomes. Recently, the effectiveness of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in reducing postoperative complications (POCs) has been questioned. This systematic review aimed to examine and rank the effectiveness of these therapies on POCs in adult surgical patients.

Antimicrobial Stewardship in Surgery: Challenges and Opportunities

Antibiotic stewardship programs have been playing an increasingly important role in patient care and hospital policies. The role of these programs in surgical care presents several unique challenges and opportunities, most notably in the perioperative setting. Controversy remains regarding optimal antibiotic choice, dosage, and length of prophylaxis. Here, we review current best...