Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 5,112)

Repeated Vaccination Does Not Appear to Impact Upon Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Hospitalization With Confirmed Influenza

Annual influenza vaccine is recommended for those at greatest risk of severe influenza infection. Recent reports of a negative impact of serial influenza vaccination on vaccine effectiveness (VE) raises concerns about the recommendation for annual influenza vaccines, particularly in persons at greatest risk.

Continuum of Care for Hepatitis C Virus Among Patients Diagnosed in the Emergency Department Setting

Urban emergency departments (EDs) seem to be able to detect new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections at a high rate, but it is unknown the extent to which individuals screened in the ED can progress to treatment and cure. We evaluate the HCV Continuum of Care for patients identified with HCV in 2 urban EDs, and consider the results in the context of outcomes from ambulatory...

Project BioShield and the Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority: A 10-Year Progress Report on Meeting US Preparedness Objectives for Threat Agents

The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) conducts the advanced research and development and procurement of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats, pandemic influenza, and emerging infectious diseases. Since its inception in 2006, BARDA has played a critical role in partnering with...

Antiretrovirals, Fractures, and Osteonecrosis in a Large International HIV Cohort

Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes.

Echinocandins Compared to Fluconazole for Candidemia of a Urinary Tract Source: A Propensity Score Analysis

Whether echinocandins could be used to treat candidemia of a urinary tract source (CUTS) is unknown. We aimed to provide current epidemiological information of CUTS and to compare echinocandin to fluconazole treatment on CUTS outcomes.

Immune Serum From Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Immunization Neutralizes Multiple Individual Wild and Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses

A Sabin strain–based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine.

Zero Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Lessons Learned From Thailand

New emerging pathogens can quickly become a global health threat in this era. A number of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks have been linked to healthcare facilities. The healthcare-associated transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been attributed to overcrowding, delayed diagnosis, and the breakdown of infection control...

Antimicrobial Stewardship in Surgery: Challenges and Opportunities

Antibiotic stewardship programs have been playing an increasingly important role in patient care and hospital policies. The role of these programs in surgical care presents several unique challenges and opportunities, most notably in the perioperative setting. Controversy remains regarding optimal antibiotic choice, dosage, and length of prophylaxis. Here, we review current best...

Spatial Distribution of Falciparum Malaria Infections in Zanzibar: Implications for Focal Drug Administration Strategies Targeting Asymptomatic Parasite Carriers

Optimal use of mass/targeted screen-and-treat or mass or focal drug administration as malaria elimination strategies remains unclear. We therefore studied spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum infections to compare simulated effects of these strategies on reducing the parasite reservoir in a pre-elimination setting.

Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population.

Limitations of Rapid Diagnostic Testing in Patients with Suspected Malaria: A Diagnostic Accuracy Evaluation from Swaziland, a Low-Endemicity Country Aiming for Malaria Elimination

The performance of Plasmodium falciparum–specific histidine-rich protein 2–based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to evaluate suspected malaria in low-endemicity settings has not been well characterized.

Epidemiology of Multiple Herpes Viremia in Previously Immunocompetent Patients With Septic Shock

Systemic reactivations of herpesviruses may occur in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, even in those without prior immune deficiency. However, the clinical relevance of these events is uncertain.

Association of the HLA-B*53:01 Allele With Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome During Treatment of HIV Infection With Raltegravir

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare, severe adverse event during treatment with raltegravir. The occurrence of DRESS syndrome during treatment with other drugs is strongly associated with particular HLA alleles.

Eight Habits of Highly Effective Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs to Meet the Joint Commission Standards for Hospitals

In an effort to decrease antimicrobial resistance and inappropriate antibiotic use, The Joint Commission (TJC) recently issued new antimicrobial stewardship standards, consisting of 8 elements of performance, applicable to hospitals effective January 1, 2017. These standards coincide with those recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society of...

Pertussis Antibody Transfer to Preterm Neonates After Second- Versus Third-Trimester Maternal Immunization

Preterm infants are most vulnerable to pertussis. Whether they might benefit from maternal immunization is unknown. Extending our previous results in term neonates, this observational study demonstrates that second- rather than third-trimester maternal vaccination results in higher birth anti–pertussis toxin titers in preterm neonates.