Clinical Infectious Diseases

https://academic.oup.com/cid

List of Papers (Total 5,723)

From SARS to Avian Influenza Preparedness in Hong Kong

The first human H5N1 case was diagnosed in Hong Kong in 1997. Since then, experience in effective preparedness strategies that target novel influenza viruses has expanded. Here, we report on avian influenza preparedness in public hospitals in Hong Kong to illustrate policies and practices associated with control of emerging infectious diseases. The Hong Kong government’s risk...

Prevention and Control of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria in Adult Intensive Care Units: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis

This study evaluated the relative efficacy of strategies for the prevention of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) in adult intensive care units (ICUs).

Spatial Distribution of Falciparum Malaria Infections in Zanzibar: Implications for Focal Drug Administration Strategies Targeting Asymptomatic Parasite Carriers

Optimal use of mass/targeted screen-and-treat or mass or focal drug administration as malaria elimination strategies remains unclear. We therefore studied spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum infections to compare simulated effects of these strategies on reducing the parasite reservoir in a pre-elimination setting.

Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population.

Limitations of Rapid Diagnostic Testing in Patients with Suspected Malaria: A Diagnostic Accuracy Evaluation from Swaziland, a Low-Endemicity Country Aiming for Malaria Elimination

The performance of Plasmodium falciparum–specific histidine-rich protein 2–based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to evaluate suspected malaria in low-endemicity settings has not been well characterized.

Epidemiology of Multiple Herpes Viremia in Previously Immunocompetent Patients With Septic Shock

Systemic reactivations of herpesviruses may occur in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, even in those without prior immune deficiency. However, the clinical relevance of these events is uncertain.

Association of the HLA-B*53:01 Allele With Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome During Treatment of HIV Infection With Raltegravir

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare, severe adverse event during treatment with raltegravir. The occurrence of DRESS syndrome during treatment with other drugs is strongly associated with particular HLA alleles.

Eight Habits of Highly Effective Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs to Meet the Joint Commission Standards for Hospitals

In an effort to decrease antimicrobial resistance and inappropriate antibiotic use, The Joint Commission (TJC) recently issued new antimicrobial stewardship standards, consisting of 8 elements of performance, applicable to hospitals effective January 1, 2017. These standards coincide with those recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society of...

Pertussis Antibody Transfer to Preterm Neonates After Second- Versus Third-Trimester Maternal Immunization

Preterm infants are most vulnerable to pertussis. Whether they might benefit from maternal immunization is unknown. Extending our previous results in term neonates, this observational study demonstrates that second- rather than third-trimester maternal vaccination results in higher birth anti–pertussis toxin titers in preterm neonates.

Virus-driven Inflammation Is Associated With the Development of bNAbs in Spontaneous Controllers of HIV

Understanding the mechanism(s) by which broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) emerge naturally following infection is crucial for the development of a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although previous studies have implicated high viremia and associated immune activation as potential drivers for the development of bNAbs, here we sought to unlink...

High Rates of Transmission of Drug-resistant HIV in Aruba Resulting in Reduced Susceptibility to the WHO Recommended First-line Regimen in Nearly Half of Newly Diagnosed HIV-infected Patients

In Western countries emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance has tremendously decreased, and transmission of drug resistance has merely stabilized in recent years. However, in many endemic settings with limited resources rates of emerging and transmitted drug resistance are not regularly assessed.

Evaluation of Modified 2-Tiered Serodiagnostic Testing Algorithms for Early Lyme Disease

The conventional 2-tiered serologic testing protocol for Lyme disease (LD), an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G Western blots, performs well in late-stage LD but is insensitive in patients with erythema migrans (EM), the most common manifestation of the illness. Western blots are also complex, difficult to interpret, and relatively...

Diffuse White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Associated With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System Among Patients With Neurological Symptoms

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can replicate independently in extravascular compartments such as the central nervous system, resulting in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discordance (viral load [VL] in CSF 0.5 log10 copies HIV-1 RNA greater than plasma VL) or escape (detection of HIV VL >50 copies/mL in CSF in patients with suppressed plasma VL <50 copies/mL). Both...

Effectiveness of Long-term Doxycycline Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Fatigue Severity in Patients with Q Fever Fatigue Syndrome (Qure Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial

Approximately 20% of patients with acute Q fever will develop chronic fatigue, referred to as Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS). The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of either long-term treatment with doxycycline or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing fatigue severity in patients with QFS.

Management of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infections in Adults: Analysis of Risk Factors Associated With Treatment Failure

Little is known regarding the optimal treatment of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections in adults. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies and to identify factors that predict failure.