Clinical Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 4,248)

Definitions of Cytomegalovirus Infection and Disease in Transplant Patients for Use in Clinical Trials

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are important causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. For the purpose of developing consistent reporting of CMV outcomes in clinical trials, definitions of CMV infection and disease were developed and most recently published in 2002. Since then, there have been major developments in its diagnosis and management...

Late Relapse Versus Hepatitis C Virus Reinfection in Patients With Sustained Virologic Response After Sofosbuvir-Based Therapies

The development of direct-acting antivirals in recent years has dramatically enhanced rates of viral eradication to >90% in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To determine true treatment efficacy and define the most appropriate retreatment, it is important to distinguish virologic relapse from reinfection when patients in whom HCV is eradicated during...

Evaluating Google Flu Trends in Latin America: Important Lessons for the Next Phase of Digital Disease Detection

Latin America has a substantial burden of influenza and rising Internet access and could benefit from real-time influenza epidemic prediction web tools such as Google Flu Trends (GFT) to assist in risk communication and resource allocation during epidemics. However, there has never been a published assessment of GFT's accuracy in most Latin American countries or in any low- to...


Measuring Appropriate Antimicrobial Use: Attempts at Opening the Black Box

Indiscriminate antimicrobial use has plagued medicine since antibiotics were first introduced into clinical practice >70 years ago. Infectious diseases physicians and public health officials have advocated for preservation of these life-saving drugs for many years. With rising burden of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile infections, halting unnecessary...

2014–2015 Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States by Vaccine Type

Circulating A/H3N2 influenza viruses drifted significantly after strain selection for the 2014–2015 vaccines. Also in 2014–2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended preferential use of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) over inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) among children aged 2–8 years.

Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of CHWs for...

Feasibility of Malaria Diagnosis and Management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: A Community-Based Observational Study

Malaria-endemic countries are encouraged to increase, expedite, and standardize care based on parasite diagnosis and treat confirmed malaria using oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or rectal artesunate plus referral when patients are unable to take oral medication.

Asymptomatic CMV Replication During Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Is Associated With Lower CD4/CD8 Ratio During HIV Treatment

A low CD4/CD8 ratio in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals is associated with inflammation and higher risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the effect of subclinical cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell dynamics when antiretroviral therapy (ART) is started during early infection.

Transmission of Drug-Resistant Leprosy in Guinea-Conakry Detected Using Molecular Epidemiological Approaches

Molecular drug susceptibility testing was performed on skin biopsies from 24 leprosy patients from Guinea-Conakry for the first time. We identified primary drug resistance in 4 cases and a dapsone-resistant cluster caused by the same strain. Primary transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium leprae, including a rifampicin-resistant strain, is reported.

Acute Demyelinating Events Following Vaccines: A Case-Centered Analysis

Case reports have suggested that vaccines may trigger transverse myelitis (TM) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), but the evidence for a causal association is inconclusive. We analyzed the association of immunization and subsequent development of TM or ADEM.

Effects of Corticosteroids on Critically Ill Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: A Propensity Analysis of Mortality

We investigated the effects of corticosteroids on the 90-day mortality outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of acute respiratory failure (ARF).