Clinical Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 5,723)

Primary Prophylaxis for Cryptococcosis With Fluconazole in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patients With CD4 T-Cell Counts <100 Cells/µL and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 302 human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count <100 cells/µL and negative serum cryptococcal antigen initiating antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. During 2-year follow-up, there were no differences of survival rates and occurrences of newly diagnosed cryptococcosis between...

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Anti-HEV Immunoglobulin G-Carrying Patients After Successful Hepatitis C Virus Treatment: Reactivation or Reinfection?

Although hepatitis E virus (HEV) is regarded as a self-limiting infection and anti-HEV antibodies seem to protect against reinfection, its pathogenesis is not well established. We describe 2 cases of acute symptomatic HEV infection after hepatitis C therapy in patients carrying anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies, raising 2 major questions: reactivation or reinfection?

Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome

Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days).

Ultra-Short-Course Antibiotics for Patients With Suspected Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia but Minimal and Stable Ventilator Settings

Many patients started on antibiotics for possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) do not have pneumonia. Patients with minimal and stable ventilator settings may be suitable candidates for early antibiotic discontinuation. We compared outcomes among patients with suspected VAP but minimal and stable ventilator settings treated with 1–3 days vs >3 days of antibiotics.

Geographic Differences in Temporal Incidence Trends of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs: The InC3 Collaboration

We determined temporal trends (1985–2011) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and associated behavioral exposures for people who inject drugs (PWID) from the United States (Boston, Baltimore, and San Francisco), Canada (Montreal), the Netherlands (Amsterdam), and Australia (Sydney and Melbourne).

Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of Listeriosis: A Nationwide Registry-based Case-Control Study

Recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk for listeriosis. We investigated a potential association in cases of nonpregnancy-associated listeriosis using registry data.

Occupational HIV Infection in a Research Laboratory With Unknown Mode of Transmission: A Case Report

A laboratory worker was infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in a biosafety level 2 containment facility, without any apparent breach. Through full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we could identify the source of infection in a replication-competent clone that unknowingly contaminated a safe experiment. Mode of transmission remains unclear. Caution...

Combatting Global Infectious Diseases: A Network Effect of Specimen Referral Systems

The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa clearly demonstrated the critical role of laboratory systems and networks in responding to epidemics. Because of the huge challenges in establishing functional laboratories at all tiers of health systems in developing countries, strengthening specimen referral networks is critical. In this review article, we propose a platform...

Penile Immune Activation and Risk of HIV Shedding: A Prospective Cohort Study

Genital immune activation is suspected to modulate local human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels and the risk of sexual HIV transmission.

Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in...

A Risk Assessment Tool for Identifying Pregnant and Postpartum Women Who May Benefit From Preexposure Prophylaxis

A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk assessment tool for pregnant women could identify women who would most benefit from preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) while minimizing unnecessary PrEP exposure.

Investment Success in Public Health: An Analysis of the Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis

It has been estimated that $154 million per year will be required during 2015–2020 to continue the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). In light of this, it is important to understand the program’s current value. Here, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the preventive chemotherapy that was provided under the GPELF between 2000 and 2014...

Diabetes Mellitus and Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Systemic Review and Metaanalysis

Despite the well-documented association between diabetes and active tuberculosis, evidence of the association between diabetes and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains limited and inconsistent.