Clinical Infectious Diseases

List of Papers (Total 3,675)

World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production

Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials—particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine—in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of...

Ebola Virus–Related Encephalitis

Ebola patients frequently exhibit behavioral modifications with ideation slowing and aggressiveness, sometimes contrasting with mild severity of Ebola disease. We performed lumbar punctures in 3 patients with this presentation and found Ebola virus in all cerebrospinal fluid samples. This discovery helps to discuss the concept of a specific Ebola virus encephalitis.

Universal Mask Usage for Reduction of Respiratory Viral Infections After Stem Cell Transplant: A Prospective Trial

Background. Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are frequent complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Surgical masks are a simple and inexpensive intervention that may reduce nosocomial spread.

Benefit-risk Evaluation for Diagnostics: A Framework (BED-FRAME)

The medical community needs systematic and pragmatic approaches for evaluating the benefit-risk trade-offs of diagnostics that assist in medical decision making. Benefit-Risk Evaluation of Diagnostics: A Framework (BED-FRAME) is a strategy for pragmatic evaluation of diagnostics designed to supplement traditional approaches. BED-FRAME evaluates diagnostic yield and addresses 2...

Zoonotic Transmission of Two New Strains of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 4 in Hunters Bitten by a Gorilla in Central Africa

Molecular screening of 300 at-risk people from Central Africa identified 2 human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-4–infected individuals. A zoonotic origin of infection was suggested, as both individuals reported being severely bitten by a gorilla during hunting activities. One strain was highly divergent and was designated as the HTLV-4 subtype-b prototype.

Metaanalysis of the Performance of a Combined Treponemal and Nontreponemal Rapid Diagnostic Test for Syphilis and Yaws

Background. The human treponematoses are important causes of disease. Mother-to-child transmission of syphilis remains a major cause of stillbirth and neonatal death. There are also almost 100 000 cases of endemic treponemal disease reported annually, predominantly yaws. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) would improve access to screening for these diseases. Most RDTs cannot...

Are We There Yet? Impact of the First International Standard for Cytomegalovirus DNA on the Harmonization of Results Reported on Plasma Samples

Background. Interassay harmonization of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA measurement is important for infection management. Uncertainty exists regarding the result harmonization achievable in patient plasma samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays with calibrators now traceable to the First World Health Organization International Standard (IS) for CMV DNA.

Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent HIV Acquisition in Serodiscordant Couples in a Hyperendemic Community in Rural South Africa

Background.  Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was highly efficacious in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in stable serodiscordant couples in the HPTN-052 study, a resource-intensive randomized controlled trial with near-perfect ART adherence and mutual HIV status disclosure among all participating couples. However, minimal evidence exists of the...

Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Bacteremia and Sepsis on 5-year Risk of Cardiovascular Events

Background.  The long-term and cumulative effect of multiple episodes of bacteremia and sepsis across multiple hospitalizations on the development of cardiovascular (CV) events is uncertain.

Epidemiology of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in the United States, 2005–2012

Background.  Invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. We report the epidemiology and trends of invasive GAS over 8 years of surveillance.

Executive Summary: Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in...