Environmental Health

http://www.ehjournal.net/

List of Papers (Total 1,061)

The physiological determinants of low-level urine cadmium: an assessment in a cross-sectional study among schoolchildren

Recent studies in children have reported associations of urinary cadmium (U-Cd), used as biomarker of Cd body burden, with renal dysfunction, retarded growth and impaired cognitive development in children. Little is known, however, about factors influencing U-Cd in children and likely to act as confounders. In a cross-sectional study involving 249 schoolchildren (mean age, 5.72 ...

Assessment of the potential respiratory hazard of volcanic ash from future Icelandic eruptions: a study of archived basaltic to rhyolitic ash samples

The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland’s volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. A physicochemical characterization and toxicological ...

Environmental radon exposure and breast cancer risk in the Nurses’ Health Study II

Radon and its decay products, a source of ionizing radiation, are primarily inhaled and can deliver a radiation dose to breast tissue, where they may continue to decay and emit DNA damage-inducing particles. Few studies have examined the relationship between radon and breast cancer. The Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) includes U.S. female registered nurses who completed biennial ...

Cardiovascular health effects following exposure of human volunteers during fire extinction exercises

Firefighters have increased risk of cardiovascular disease and of sudden death from coronary heart disease on duty while suppressing fires. This study investigated the effect of firefighting activities, using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), on biomarkers of cardiovascular effects in young conscripts training to become firefighters. Healthy conscripts (n = 43) who ...

A prospective study of cancer risk among Agricultural Health Study farm spouses associated with personal use of organochlorine insecticides

Organochlorine insecticides (OCs) have historically been used worldwide to control insects, although most have now been banned in developed countries. Evidence for an association between OC exposures and cancer predominantly comes from occupational and population based-studies among men. We evaluated the association between the use of specific OCs and cancer among the female ...

Exposure to air pollution near a steel plant is associated with reduced heart rate variability: a randomised crossover study

Background Epidemiological studies have shown that as ambient air pollution (AP) increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality also increases. The mechanisms of this effect may be linked to alterations in autonomic nervous system function. We wished to examine the effects of industrial AP on heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of subtle changes in heart rate and rhythm ...

Early-life exposure to air pollution and greater use of academic support services in childhood: a population-based cohort study of urban children

Background There is a growing literature showing associations between prenatal and early-life exposure to air pollution and children’s neurodevelopment. However, it is unclear if decrements in neurodevelopment observed in epidemiologic research translate into observable functional outcomes in the broader pediatric population. The objective of this study was to examine the ...

Meeting report: the 5th International expert symposium in Fukushima on radiation and health

Background The symposium entitled “Chernobyl +30, Fukushima +5: Lessons and Solutions for Fukushima’s Thyroid Question” was held in September, 2016 in Fukushima. The aim of the Symposium was to revisit and recapitulate evidence from the studies in Chernobyl in order to share multidisciplinary opinions and views on the likely reason for the high rate of thyroid cancer detected by ...

Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity in PM 2.5 -mortality associations in US cities

Background Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the ...

The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5% among Nepali farmers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

Background Previous studies stating a high prevalence of occupational acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries have mainly relied on measurements of the rather non-specific self-reported acute pesticide poisoning symptoms. Only a few studies have measured the biomarker plasma cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute ...

Internal living environment and respiratory disease in children: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort study

Background The incidence of early childhood acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has been associated with aspects of the indoor environment. In recent years, public awareness about some of these environmental issues has increased, including new laws and subsequent changes in occupant behaviours. This New Zealand study investigated current exposures to specific risk factors in the ...

Long-term outdoor air pollution and DNA methylation in circulating monocytes: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Background DNA methylation may mediate effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease. The association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation in monocytes, which are central to atherosclerosis, has not been studied. We investigated the association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and DNA methylation (candidate sites and global) in monocytes ...

Undereporting of acute pesticide poisoning in Tanzania: modelling results from two cross-sectional studies

Background Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is known to cause serious injuries to end users globally but the magnitude of this problem in Tanzania is not well known. This study aimed to determine the extent and pattern of underreporting of APP in Tanzania to inform the development of a surveillance system and appropriate interventions. Methods This study integrates findings from two ...

Pediatric emergency department visits and ambient Air pollution in the U.S. State of Georgia: a case-crossover study

Background Estimating the health effects of ambient air pollutant mixtures is necessary to understand the risk of real-life air pollution exposures. Methods Pediatric Emergency Department (ED) visit records for asthma or wheeze (n = 148,256), bronchitis (n = 84,597), pneumonia (n = 90,063), otitis media (n = 422,268) and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) (n = 744,942) were ...

A simulation study to quantify the impacts of exposure measurement error on air pollution health risk estimates in copollutant time-series models

Background Exposure measurement error in copollutant epidemiologic models has the potential to introduce bias in relative risk (RR) estimates. A simulation study was conducted using empirical data to quantify the impact of correlated measurement errors in time-series analyses of air pollution and health. Methods ZIP-code level estimates of exposure for six pollutants (CO, NO x , ...

Portable air cleaners should be at the forefront of the public health response to landscape fire smoke

Landscape fires can produce large quantities of smoke that degrade air quality in both remote and urban communities. Smoke from these fires is a complex mixture of fine particulate matter and gases, exposure to which is associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The public health response to short-lived smoke events typically advises people to ...

Brominated flame retardants in placental tissues: associations with infant sex and thyroid hormone endpoints

Background Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are endocrine disruptors that bioaccumulate in the placenta, but it remains unclear if they disrupt tissue thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Our primary goal was to investigate associations between placental BFRs, TH levels, Type 3 deiodinase (DIO3) activity and TH sulfotransferase (SULT) activities. Methods Placenta samples collected ...

Low dose radiation risks for women surviving the a-bombs in Japan: generalized additive model

Background Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling ...

Spatiotemporal exposure modeling of ambient erythemal ultraviolet radiation

Background Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation plays a multifaceted role in human health, inducing DNA damage and representing the primary source of vitamin D for most humans; however, current U.S. UV exposure models are limited in spatial, temporal, and/or spectral resolution. Area-to-point (ATP) residual kriging is a geostatistical method that can be used to create a spatiotemporal ...

A proposed case-control framework to probabilistically classify individual deaths as expected or excess during extreme hot weather events

Background Most excess deaths that occur during extreme hot weather events do not have natural heat recorded as an underlying or contributing cause. This study aims to identify the specific individuals who died because of hot weather using only secondary data. A novel approach was developed in which the expected number of deaths was repeatedly sampled from all deaths that occurred ...

Current medical research funding and frameworks are insufficient to address the health risks of global environmental change

Background Three major international agreements signed in 2015 are key milestones for transitioning to more sustainable and resilient societies: the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction; and the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Together, these agreements underscore the critical ...

Exploring the influence of short-term temperature patterns on temperature-related mortality: a case-study of Melbourne, Australia

Background Several studies have identified the association between ambient temperature and mortality; however, several features of temperature behavior and their impacts on health remain unresolved. We obtain daily counts of nonaccidental all-cause mortality data in the elderly (65 + years) and corresponding meteorological data for Melbourne, Australia during 1999 to 2006. We then ...

Stunting is associated with blood lead concentration among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3 years

Background Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated ...

Gene expression network analyses in response to air pollution exposures in the trucking industry

Background Exposure to air pollution, including traffic-related pollutants, has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes, including increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, and increased lung cancer risk. Methods To better understand the cellular responses induced by air pollution exposures, we performed genome-wide gene expression microarray analysis ...

Asthma exacerbations and traffic: examining relationships using link-based traffic metrics and a comprehensive patient database

Background The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) is a unique community-based medical record data linkage system that provides individual patient address, diagnosis and visit information for all hospitalizations, as well as emergency department, urgent care and outpatient clinic visits for asthma. Proximity to traffic is known to be associated with asthma exacerbations and ...