Surveys in Geophysics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10712

List of Papers (Total 104)

Developing a Complex Independent Component Analysis (CICA) Technique to Extract Non-stationary Patterns from Geophysical Time Series

In recent decades, decomposition techniques have enabled increasingly more applications for dimension reduction, as well as extraction of additional information from geophysical time series. Traditionally, the principal component analysis (PCA)/empirical orthogonal function (EOF) method and more recently the independent component analysis (ICA) have been applied to extract...

Two-Dimensional Magnetotelluric Modelling of Ore Deposits: Improvements in Model Constraints by Inclusion of Borehole Measurements

A combination of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements on the surface and in boreholes (without metal casing) can be expected to enhance resolution and reduce the ambiguity in models of electrical resistivity derived from MT surface measurements alone. In order to quantify potential improvement in inversion models and to aid design of electromagnetic (EM) borehole sensors, we...

Observational Constraints on Cloud Feedbacks: The Role of Active Satellite Sensors

Cloud profiling from active lidar and radar in the A-train satellite constellation has significantly advanced our understanding of clouds and their role in the climate system. Nevertheless, the response of clouds to a warming climate remains one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change and for the development of adaptions to change. Both observation of long-term...

Toward an Improved Representation of Middle Atmospheric Dynamics Thanks to the ARISE Project

This paper reviews recent progress toward understanding the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in the framework of the Atmospheric Dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE) initiative. The middle atmosphere, integrating the stratosphere and mesosphere, is a crucial region which influences tropospheric weather and climate. Enhancing the understanding of middle atmosphere...

Correction to: Effective Solar Indices for Ionospheric Modeling: A Review and a Proposal for a Real-Time Regional IRI

The sentence that reads as “It has been demonstrated…very disturbed periods.” should read as “It has been demonstrated (Mirò Amarante et al. 2007) that the ionosphere shows small scale variations that global or regional empirical models describe hardly, especially for very disturbed periods.”

Emerging Technologies and Synergies for Airborne and Space-Based Measurements of Water Vapor Profiles

A deeper understanding of how clouds will respond to a warming climate is one of the outstanding challenges in climate science. Uncertainties in the response of clouds, and particularly shallow clouds, have been identified as the dominant source of the discrepancy in model estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity. As the community gains a deeper understanding of the many...

A Survey of Precipitation-Induced Atmospheric Cold Pools over Oceans and Their Interactions with the Larger-Scale Environment

Pools of air cooled by partial rain evaporation span up to several hundreds of kilometers in nature and typically last less than 1 day, ultimately losing their identity to the large-scale flow. These fundamentally differ in character from the radiatively-driven dry pools defining convective aggregation. Advancement in remote sensing and in computer capabilities has promoted...

Correction to: An Observational View of Relationships Between Moisture Aggregation, Cloud, and Radiative Heating Profiles

The article “An observational view of relationships between moisture aggregation, cloud and radiative heating profiles”, written by Matthew D. Lebsock, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Robert Pincus, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 31 October 2017 without open access.

Low-Cloud Feedbacks from Cloud-Controlling Factors: A Review

The response to warming of tropical low-level clouds including both marine stratocumulus and trade cumulus is a major source of uncertainty in projections of future climate. Climate model simulations of the response vary widely, reflecting the difficulty the models have in simulating these clouds. These inadequacies have led to alternative approaches to predict low-cloud...

EUREC4A: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Couplings Between Clouds, Convection and Circulation

Trade-wind cumuli constitute the cloud type with the highest frequency of occurrence on Earth, and it has been shown that their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions will critically influence the magnitude and pace of future global warming. Research over the last decade has pointed out the importance of the interplay between clouds, convection and circulation in...

Implications of Warm Rain in Shallow Cumulus and Congestus Clouds for Large-Scale Circulations

Space-borne observations reveal that 20–40% of marine convective clouds below the freezing level produce rain. In this paper we speculate what the prevalence of warm rain might imply for convection and large-scale circulations over tropical oceans. We present results using a two-column radiative–convective model of hydrostatic, nonlinear flow on a non-rotating sphere, with...

New Insights on Mt. Etna’s Crust and Relationship with the Regional Tectonic Framework from Joint Active and Passive P-Wave Seismic Tomography

In the Central Mediterranean region, the production of chemically diverse volcanic products (e.g., those from Mt. Etna and the Aeolian Islands archipelago) testifies to the complexity of the tectonic and geodynamic setting. Despite the large number of studies that have focused on this area, the relationships among volcanism, tectonics, magma ascent, and geodynamic processes...

Structure and Dynamical Influence of Water Vapor in the Lower Tropical Troposphere

In situ, airborne and satellite measurements are used to characterize the structure of water vapor in the lower tropical troposphere—below the height, \(z_*,\) of the triple-point isotherm, \(T_*.\) The measurements are evaluated in light of understanding of how lower-tropospheric water vapor influences clouds, convection and circulation, through both radiative and thermodynamic...

Mechanisms and Model Diversity of Trade-Wind Shallow Cumulus Cloud Feedbacks: A Review

Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important...

Observing Convective Aggregation

Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few...

Global Precipitation: Means, Variations and Trends During the Satellite Era (1979–2014)

Global precipitation variations over the satellite era are reviewed using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly, globally complete analyses, which integrate satellite and surface gauge information. Mean planetary values are examined and compared, over ocean, with information from recent satellite programs and related estimates, with generally positive...

Integrating Electromagnetic Data with Other Geophysical Observations for Enhanced Imaging of the Earth: A Tutorial and Review

In this review, I discuss the basic principles of joint inversion and constrained inversion approaches and show a few instructive examples of applications of these approaches in the literature. Starting with some basic definitions of the terms joint inversion and constrained inversion, I use a simple three-layered model as a tutorial example that demonstrates the general...

Determination of Gravitational Potential at Ground Using Optical-Atomic Clocks on Board Satellites and on Ground Stations and Relevant Simulation Experiments

The general relativity theory provides a potential way to directly determine the gravitational potential (GP) difference by comparing the running rate or vibration frequencies of two optical-atomic clocks located at two stations. Recently we proposed an approach referred to as satellite frequency signal transmission based on the Doppler canceling technique or tri-frequency...

Fast Estimation of Covariance Parameters in Least-Squares Collocation by Fisher Scoring with Levenberg–Marquardt Optimization

Maximum likelihood (ML) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) are nowadays very popular in geophysics, geodesy and many other fields. There is also a growing number of investigations into how to calculate covariance parameters by ML/REML accurately and fast, and assure the convergence of the iteration steps in derivative-based approaches. The latter condition is not satisfied...

Large-Scale Total Water Storage and Water Flux Changes over the Arid and Semiarid Parts of the Middle East from GRACE and Reanalysis Products

Previous studies indicate that water storage over a large part of the Middle East has been decreased over the last decade. Variability in the total (hydrological) water flux (TWF, i.e., precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus runoff) and water storage changes of the Tigris–Euphrates river basin and Iran’s six major basins (Khazar, Persian, Urmia, Markazi, Hamun, and Sarakhs...

Monitoring Sea Level in the Coastal Zone with Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges

We examine the issue of sustained measurements of sea level in the coastal zone, first by summarizing the long-term observations from tide gauges, then showing how those are now complemented by improved satellite altimetry products in the coastal ocean. We present some of the progresses in coastal altimetry, both from dedicated reprocessing of the radar waveforms and from the...

Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth’s surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea...

Observation-Based Estimates of Global Glacier Mass Change and Its Contribution to Sea-Level Change

Glaciers have strongly contributed to sea-level rise during the past century and will continue to be an important part of the sea-level budget during the twenty-first century. Here, we review the progress in estimating global glacier mass change from in situ measurements of mass and length changes, remote sensing methods, and mass balance modeling driven by climate observations...