Surveys in Geophysics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10712

List of Papers (Total 89)

The Sea Level Budget Since 2003: Inference on the Deep Ocean Heat Content

This study provides an overview of the various components of the global mean sea level evolution over two time spans: (1) 2005–2012 (corresponding to the full deployment of the Argo program) and (2) 2003–2012. Using a sea level budget approach, we compare altimetry-based global mean sea level, global ocean mass from GRACE space gravimetry and steric sea level from Argo and other in ...

A Review of Ionospheric Scintillation Models

This is a general review of the existing climatological models of ionospheric radio scintillation for high and equatorial latitudes. Trans-ionospheric communication of radio waves from transmitter to user is affected by the ionosphere which is highly variable and dynamic in both time and space. Scintillation is the term given to irregular amplitude and phase fluctuations of the ...

4D Arctic: A Glimpse into the Structure and Evolution of the Arctic in the Light of New Geophysical Maps, Plate Tectonics and Tomographic Models

Knowledge about the Arctic tectonic structure has changed in the last decade as a large number of new datasets have been collected and systematized. Here, we review the most updated, publicly available Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic and gravity data together with new models of the Arctic’s crust. Available tomographic models have also been scrutinized and evaluated ...

Effects of Arctic Sea Ice Decline on Weather and Climate: A Review

The areal extent, concentration and thickness of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas have strongly decreased during the recent decades, but cold, snow-rich winters have been common over mid-latitude land areas since 2005. A review is presented on studies addressing the local and remote effects of the sea ice decline on weather and climate. It is evident that the reduction ...

Arctic Climate and Water Change: Model and Observation Relevance for Assessment and Adaptation

The Arctic is subject to growing economic and political interest. Meanwhile, its climate and water systems are in rapid transformation. In this paper, we review and extend a set of studies on climate model results, hydro-climatic change, and hydrological monitoring systems. Results indicate that general circulation model (GCM) projections of drainage basin temperature and ...

Toward Improved Estimation of the Dynamic Topography and Ocean Circulation in the High Latitude and Arctic Ocean: The Importance of GOCE

The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and shows significant sensitivity to anthropogenic climate forcing and the ongoing climate change. Accelerated changes in the Arctic are already observed, including elevated air and ocean temperatures, declines of the summer sea ice extent and sea ice thickness influencing the albedo and CO2 exchange, melting of the ...

Quantification of Long-Range Persistence in Geophysical Time Series: Conventional and Benchmark-Based Improvement Techniques

Time series in the Earth Sciences are often characterized as self-affine long-range persistent, where the power spectral density, S, exhibits a power-law dependence on frequency, f, S(f) ~ f −β , with β the persistence strength. For modelling purposes, it is important to determine the strength of self-affine long-range persistence β as precisely as possible and to quantify the ...

Closing the Gaps in Our Knowledge of the Hydrological Cycle over Land: Conceptual Problems

This paper reviews the conceptual problems limiting our current knowledge of the hydrological cycle over land. We start from the premise that to understand the hydrological cycle we need to make observations and develop dynamic models that encapsulate our understanding. Yet, neither the observations nor the models could give a complete picture of the hydrological cycle. Data ...

Physically Consistent Responses of the Global Atmospheric Hydrological Cycle in Models and Observations

Robust and physically understandable responses of the global atmospheric water cycle to a warming climate are presented. By considering interannual responses to changes in surface temperature (T), observations and AMIP5 simulations agree on an increase in column integrated water vapor at the rate 7 %/K (in line with the Clausius–Clapeyron equation) and of precipitation at the rate ...

High-Speed Observations of Sprite Streamers

Sprites are optical emissions in the mesosphere mainly at altitudes 50–90 km. They are caused by the sudden re-distribution of charge due to lightning in the troposphere which can produce electric fields in the mesosphere in excess of the local breakdown field. The resulting optical displays can be spectacular and this has led to research into the physics and chemistry involved. ...

The Carnegie Curve

The Earth’s fair weather atmospheric electric field shows, in clean air, an average daily variation which follows universal time, globally independent of the measurement position. This single diurnal cycle variation (maximum around 19UT and minimum around 03UT) is widely known as the Carnegie curve, after the geophysical survey vessel of the Carnegie Institution of Washington on ...

Analysing Debris-Flow Impact Models, Based on a Small Scale Modelling Approach

The objective of this study is to analyse adaptable debris-flow impact models, which are very important for mitigation measurements and buildings using their sphere of influence. For this reason, 16 debris-flow experiments, on a small-scale modelling approach, were performed. Impact forces were measured with a force plate panel, consisting of 24 aluminium devices, coaxially mounted ...

Energetic Particle Precipitation and the Chemistry of the Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere

Precipitation of energetic particles into the atmosphere greatly disturbs the chemical composition from the upper stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. Most important are changes to the budget of atmospheric nitric oxides (NOx = N, NO, NO2) and to atmospheric reactive hydrogen oxides (HOx = H, OH, HO2), which both contribute to ozone loss in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The ...

Global Dynamics of the MLT

The transition between the middle atmosphere and the thermosphere is known as the MLT region (for mesosphere and lower thermosphere). This area has some characteristics that set it apart from other regions of the atmosphere. Most notably, it is the altitude region with the lowest overall temperature and has the unique characteristic that the temperature is much lower in summer than ...

Computation of Solar Radiative Fluxes by 1D and 3D Methods Using Cloudy Atmospheres Inferred from A-train Satellite Data

This study used realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 61 km wide by 14,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. ...

Solar Influence on Global and Regional Climates

The literature relevant to how solar variability influences climate is vast—but much has been based on inadequate statistics and non-robust procedures. The common pitfalls are outlined in this review. The best estimates of the solar influence on the global mean air surface temperature show relatively small effects, compared with the response to anthropogenic changes (and broadly in ...

Uncertainty Estimate of Surface Irradiances Computed with MODIS-, CALIPSO-, and CloudSat-Derived Cloud and Aerosol Properties

Differences of modeled surface upward and downward longwave and shortwave irradiances are calculated using modeled irradiance computed with active sensor-derived and passive sensor-derived cloud and aerosol properties. The irradiance differences are calculated for various temporal and spatial scales, monthly gridded, monthly zonal, monthly global, and annual global. Using the ...