Surveys in Geophysics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10712

List of Papers (Total 91)

Solar Influence on Global and Regional Climates

The literature relevant to how solar variability influences climate is vast—but much has been based on inadequate statistics and non-robust procedures. The common pitfalls are outlined in this review. The best estimates of the solar influence on the global mean air surface temperature show relatively small effects, compared with the response to anthropogenic changes (and broadly in ...

Uncertainty Estimate of Surface Irradiances Computed with MODIS-, CALIPSO-, and CloudSat-Derived Cloud and Aerosol Properties

Differences of modeled surface upward and downward longwave and shortwave irradiances are calculated using modeled irradiance computed with active sensor-derived and passive sensor-derived cloud and aerosol properties. The irradiance differences are calculated for various temporal and spatial scales, monthly gridded, monthly zonal, monthly global, and annual global. Using the ...

Reducing the Uncertainties in Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing

Direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) remains a leading contributor to climate prediction uncertainty. To monitor the spatially and temporally varying global atmospheric aerosol load, satellite remote sensing is required. Despite major advances in observing aerosol amount, type, and distribution from space, satellite data alone cannot provide enough quantitative detail, ...

Tracking Earth’s Energy: From El Niño to Global Warming

The state of knowledge and outstanding issues with respect to the global mean energy budget of planet Earth are described, along with the ability to track changes over time. Best estimates of the main energy components involved in radiative transfer and energy flows through the climate system do not satisfy physical constraints for conservation of energy without adjustments. The ...

Advances in Understanding Top-of-Atmosphere Radiation Variability from Satellite Observations

This paper highlights how the emerging record of satellite observations from the Earth Observation System (EOS) and A-Train constellation are advancing our ability to more completely document and understand the underlying processes associated with variations in the Earth’s top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. Large-scale TOA radiation changes during the past decade are ...

Cloud Adjustment and its Role in CO2 Radiative Forcing and Climate Sensitivity: A Review

Understanding the role of clouds in climate change remains a considerable challenge. Traditionally, this challenge has been framed in terms of understanding cloud feedback. However, recent work suggests that under increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, clouds not only amplify or dampen climate change through global feedback processes, but also through rapid (days to ...

Representing the Sensitivity of Convective Cloud Systems to Tropospheric Humidity in General Circulation Models

Convective cloud variability on many times scales can be viewed as having three major components: a suppressed phase of shallow and congestus clouds, a disturbed phase of deep convective clouds, and a mature phase of transition to stratiform upper-level clouds. Cumulus parameterization development has focused primarily on the second phase until recently. Consequently, many ...

Observing and Modeling Earth’s Energy Flows

This article reviews, from the authors’ perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth’s climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth’s energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of ...

Changes in Earth’s Energy Flows and Clouds in 228-Year Simulation with a High-Resolution AGCM

We have examined long-term changes in Earth’s energy flows at top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at Earth’s surface (land and ocean) by using 228-year simulation of a high-resolution global atmosphere model, MRI-AGCM3.2. It is found that the net downward short wave (SW) radiation (absorbed solar radiation, ASR) at TOA significantly increases during twenty-first century in agreement ...

The Role of Clouds: An Introduction and Rapporteur Report

This paper presents an overview of discussions during the Cloud’s Role session at the Observing and Modelling Earth’s Energy Flows Workshop. N. Loeb and B. Soden convened this session including 10 presentations by B. Stevens, B. Wielicki, G. Stephens, A. Clement, K. Sassen, D. Hartmann, T. Andrews, A. Del Genio, H. Barker, and M. Sugi addressing critical aspects of the role of ...

Solar Forcing of Climate

Solar activity is evident both in the equatorial activity centres and in the polar magnetic field variations. The total solar irradiance variation is due to the former component. During the extraordinarily long minimum of activity between sunspot cycles 23 and 24, the variations related to the equatorial field components reached their minimum values in the first half of 2008, while ...

Climates of the Earth and Cryosphere Evolution

The interrelationship between the cryosphere and the climate is not always operating on Earth over a scale of billions or millions of years. Indeed, most of the time, the Earth is regulated at temperatures such that no ice sheet exists. Nevertheless, it is very fruitful to understand the conditions where and when ice sheets were triggered during the Earth’s history. This paper ...

Estimating the Glacier Contribution to Sea-Level Rise for the Period 1800–2005

In this study, a new estimate of the contribution of glaciers and ice caps to the sea-level rise over the period 1800–2005 is presented. We exploit the available information on changes in glacier length. Length records form the only direct evidence of glacier change that has potential global coverage before 1950. We calculate a globally representative signal from 349 glacier length ...

Ice Sheets and Sea Level: Thinking Outside the Box

Until quite recently, the mass balance (MB) of the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica was poorly known and often treated as a residual in the budget of oceanic mass and sea level change. Recent developments in regional climate modelling and remote sensing, especially altimetry, gravimetry and InSAR feature tracking, have enabled us to specifically resolve the ice sheet ...

Interaction Between the Warm Subsurface Atlantic Water in the Sermilik Fjord and Helheim Glacier in Southeast Greenland

Recent observations of ocean temperature in several Greenland fjords suggest that ocean warming can cause large changes in the outlet glaciers in these fjords. We have observed the Helheim outlet-glacier front in the Sermilik Fjord over the last three decades using satellite images, and the vertical fjord temperature and salinity during three summer expeditions, 2008–2010. We show ...

Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming in the Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity LOVECLIM

Calculations were performed with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to study the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sustained multi-millennial greenhouse warming. Use was made of fully dynamic 3D thermomechanical ice-sheet models bidirectionally coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model. Two 3,000-year experiments were evaluated ...

Overview and Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992–2009

Mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in more recent reports lie between approximately +50 to −250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009. The 300 Gt/year range is approximately 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar altimeter measurements of ...

Sea-Level Rise from the Late 19th to the Early 21st Century

We estimate the rise in global average sea level from satellite altimeter data for 1993–2009 and from coastal and island sea-level measurements from 1880 to 2009. For 1993–2009 and after correcting for glacial isostatic adjustment, the estimated rate of rise is 3.2 ± 0.4 mm year−1 from the satellite data and 2.8 ± 0.8 mm year−1 from the in situ data. The global average sea-level ...

Present Day Regional Mass Loss of Greenland Observed with Satellite Gravimetry

This paper summarizes results obtained for Greenland’s mass balance observed with NASA’s GRACE mission. We estimate a Greenland ice sheet mass loss at −201 ± 19 Gt/year including a discernible acceleration of −8 ± 7 Gt/year2 between March 2003 and February 2010. The mass loss of glacier systems on the South East of Greenland has slowed down while the mass loss increases toward the ...

A Review on Solar Wind Modeling: Kinetic and Fluid Aspects

The paper reviews the main advantages and limitations of the kinetic exospheric and fluid models of the solar wind (SW). The general theoretical background is outlined: the Boltzmann and Fokker–Planck equations, the Liouville and Vlasov equations, the plasma transport equations derived from an “equation of change”. The paper provides a brief history of the solar wind modeling. It ...