Surveys in Geophysics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10712

List of Papers (Total 106)

Changes in Earth’s Energy Flows and Clouds in 228-Year Simulation with a High-Resolution AGCM

We have examined long-term changes in Earth’s energy flows at top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at Earth’s surface (land and ocean) by using 228-year simulation of a high-resolution global atmosphere model, MRI-AGCM3.2. It is found that the net downward short wave (SW) radiation (absorbed solar radiation, ASR) at TOA significantly increases during twenty-first century in agreement...

Climates of the Earth and Cryosphere Evolution

The interrelationship between the cryosphere and the climate is not always operating on Earth over a scale of billions or millions of years. Indeed, most of the time, the Earth is regulated at temperatures such that no ice sheet exists. Nevertheless, it is very fruitful to understand the conditions where and when ice sheets were triggered during the Earth’s history. This paper...

Estimating the Glacier Contribution to Sea-Level Rise for the Period 1800–2005

In this study, a new estimate of the contribution of glaciers and ice caps to the sea-level rise over the period 1800–2005 is presented. We exploit the available information on changes in glacier length. Length records form the only direct evidence of glacier change that has potential global coverage before 1950. We calculate a globally representative signal from 349 glacier...

Ice Sheets and Sea Level: Thinking Outside the Box

Until quite recently, the mass balance (MB) of the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica was poorly known and often treated as a residual in the budget of oceanic mass and sea level change. Recent developments in regional climate modelling and remote sensing, especially altimetry, gravimetry and InSAR feature tracking, have enabled us to specifically resolve the ice sheet...

Interaction Between the Warm Subsurface Atlantic Water in the Sermilik Fjord and Helheim Glacier in Southeast Greenland

Recent observations of ocean temperature in several Greenland fjords suggest that ocean warming can cause large changes in the outlet glaciers in these fjords. We have observed the Helheim outlet-glacier front in the Sermilik Fjord over the last three decades using satellite images, and the vertical fjord temperature and salinity during three summer expeditions, 2008–2010. We...

Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming in the Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity LOVECLIM

Calculations were performed with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to study the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sustained multi-millennial greenhouse warming. Use was made of fully dynamic 3D thermomechanical ice-sheet models bidirectionally coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model. Two 3,000-year experiments were evaluated...

Overview and Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992–2009

Mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in more recent reports lie between approximately +50 to −250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009. The 300 Gt/year range is approximately 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar altimeter measurements of...

Sea-Level Rise from the Late 19th to the Early 21st Century

We estimate the rise in global average sea level from satellite altimeter data for 1993–2009 and from coastal and island sea-level measurements from 1880 to 2009. For 1993–2009 and after correcting for glacial isostatic adjustment, the estimated rate of rise is 3.2 ± 0.4 mm year−1 from the satellite data and 2.8 ± 0.8 mm year−1 from the in situ data. The global average sea-level...

Present Day Regional Mass Loss of Greenland Observed with Satellite Gravimetry

This paper summarizes results obtained for Greenland’s mass balance observed with NASA’s GRACE mission. We estimate a Greenland ice sheet mass loss at −201 ± 19 Gt/year including a discernible acceleration of −8 ± 7 Gt/year2 between March 2003 and February 2010. The mass loss of glacier systems on the South East of Greenland has slowed down while the mass loss increases toward...

A Review on Solar Wind Modeling: Kinetic and Fluid Aspects

The paper reviews the main advantages and limitations of the kinetic exospheric and fluid models of the solar wind (SW). The general theoretical background is outlined: the Boltzmann and Fokker–Planck equations, the Liouville and Vlasov equations, the plasma transport equations derived from an “equation of change”. The paper provides a brief history of the solar wind modeling. It...

Improved Constraints on Models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment: A Review of the Contribution of Ground-Based Geodetic Observations

The provision of accurate models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is presently a priority need in climate studies, largely due to the potential of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to be used to determine accurate and continent-wide assessments of ice mass change and hydrology. However, modelled GIA is uncertain due to insufficient constraints on our...

Petroleum Electromagnetic Prospecting Advances and Case Studies in China

Remarkable progress has been made in electromagnetic (EM) techniques as applied to the petroleum industry in instruments, data acquisition, and processing and interpretation in China. Included here is equipment, such as high-power Controlled Source EM (CSEM) acquisition systems, acquisition methods, such as the three dimensional small-bin Continuous Electromagnetic Array...

Shear Wave Splitting and Mantle Anisotropy: Measurements, Interpretations, and New Directions

Measurements of the splitting or birefringence of seismic shear waves that have passed through the Earth’s mantle yield constraints on the strength and geometry of elastic anisotropy in various regions, including the upper mantle, the transition zone, and the D″ layer. In turn, information about the occurrence and character of seismic anisotropy allows us to make inferences about...

A Comparison of Global and Regional GRACE Models for Land Hydrology

When using GRACE as a tool for hydrology, many different gravity field model products are now available to the end user. The traditional spherical harmonics solutions produced from GRACE are typically obtained through an optimization of the gravity field data at the global scale, and are generated by a number of processing centers around the world. Alternatives to this global...

Global Soil Moisture Patterns Observed by Space Borne Microwave Radiometers and Scatterometers

Within the scope of the upcoming launch of a new water related satellite mission (SMOS) a global evaluation study was performed on two available global soil moisture products. ERS scatterometer surface wetness data was compared to AMSR-E soil moisture data. This study pointed out a strong similarity between both products in sparse to moderate vegetated regions with an average...

Wave Energy from the North Sea: Experiences from the Lysekil Research Site

This paper provides a status update on the development of the Swedish wave energy research area located close to Lysekil on the Swedish West coast. The Lysekil project is run by the Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion at Uppsala University. The project was started in 2004 and currently has permission to run until the end of 2013. During this time period 10 grid...

Recent Results from Studies of Electric Discharges in the Mesosphere

The paper reviews recent advances in studies of electric discharges in the stratosphere and mesosphere above thunderstorms, and their effects on the atmosphere. The primary focus is on the sprite discharge occurring in the mesosphere, which is the most commonly observed high altitude discharge by imaging cameras from the ground, but effects on the upper atmosphere by...

Advances in the Study of Moving Sediments and Evolving Seabeds

Sands and mud are continually being transported around the world’s coastal seas due to the action of tides, wind and waves. The transport of these sediments modifies the boundary between the land and the sea, changing and reshaping its form. Sometimes the nearshore bathymetry evolves slowly over long time periods, at other times more rapidly due to natural episodic events or the...

A decade of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN): scientific achievements, new techniques and future directions

The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) has been operating as an international co-operative organization for over 10 years. The network has now grown so that the fields of view of its 18 radars cover the majority of the northern and southern hemisphere polar ionospheres. SuperDARN has been successful in addressing a wide range of scientific questions concerning processes...