Molecular Neurobiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/12035

List of Papers (Total 307)

The Development of Translational Biomarkers as a Tool for Improving the Understanding, Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain

Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is one of the most significant unmet clinical needs in modern medicine. Alongside the lack of effective treatments, there is a great deficit in the availability of objective diagnostic methods to reliably facilitate an accurate diagnosis. We therefore aimed to determine the feasibility of a simple diagnostic test by analysing differentially expressed ...

Validation of α-Synuclein as a CSF Biomarker for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

The analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers gains importance in the differential diagnosis of prion diseases. However, no single diagnostic tool or combination of them can unequivocally confirm prion disease diagnosis. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based immunoassays have demonstrated to achieve high diagnostic accuracy in a variety of sample types due to their high ...

Extracellular Matrix Modulation Is Driven by Experience-Dependent Plasticity During Stroke Recovery

Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory ...

Ultra-efficient Amplification of Abnormal Prion Protein by Modified Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification with Electric Current

Prion diseases are clinically diagnosed and confirmed upon post-mortem histopathological examination of brain tissue. The only reliable molecular marker for prion diseases is abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), a pathologically conformed prion protein that primarily accumulates in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent in lymphoreticular tissues. However, the use of PrPSc as ...

Adaptor Complex 2 Controls Dendrite Morphology via mTOR-Dependent Expression of GluA2

The formation of dendritic arbors in neurons is a highly regulated process. Among the regulators of dendritogenesis are numerous membrane proteins that are eventually internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. AP2 is an adaptor complex that is responsible for recruiting endocytic machinery to internalized cargo. Its direct involvement in dendritogenesis in mammalian neurons ...

Distribution of Alox15 in the Rat Brain and Its Role in Prefrontal Cortical Resolvin D1 Formation and Spatial Working Memory

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in membrane phospholipids of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a role in aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA is metabolized by the enzyme Alox15 to 17S-hydroxy-DHA, which is then converted to 7S-hydroperoxy,17S-hydroxy-DHA by a 5-lipoxygenase, and thence via epoxy intermediates to the anti-inflammatory molecule, resolvin D1 (RvD1 ...

Microglial Function during Glucose Deprivation: Inflammatory and Neuropsychiatric Implications

Inflammation is increasingly recognized as a contributor to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety disorders and autism, though the factors leading to contextually inappropriate or sustained inflammation in pathological conditions are yet to be elucidated. Microglia, as the key mediators of inflammation in the CNS, serve as likely ...

Identification of TP53BP2 as a Novel Candidate Gene for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma by Whole Exome Sequencing in a Large Multiplex Family

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major type of glaucoma characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells with associated visual field loss without an identifiable secondary cause. Genetic factors are considered to be major contributors to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The aim of the study was to identify the causative gene in a large family with POAG by applying ...

Copy Number Variations in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Piecing the Mosaic Tiles Together through a Systems Biology Approach

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and still untreatable motor neuron disease. Despite the molecular mechanisms underlying ALS pathogenesis that are still far from being understood, several studies have suggested the importance of a genetic contribution in both familial and sporadic forms of the disease. In addition to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which ...

The Interactive Effects of Age and PICALM rs541458 Polymorphism on Cognitive Performance, Brain Structure, and Function in Non-demented Elderly

The PICALM rs541458 T allele has been recognized as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, and age might modulate the effects that genetic factors have on cognitive functions and brain. Thus, the current study intended to examine whether the effects of rs541458 on cognitive functions, brain structure, and function were modulated by age in non-demented Chinese elderly. We ...

Cortical Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Acute Liver Failure Are Decreased by Presynaptic Events

Neurological symptoms of acute liver failure (ALF) reflect decreased excitatory transmission, but the status of ALF-affected excitatory synapse has not been characterized in detail. We studied the effects of ALF in mouse on synaptic transmission and plasticity ex vivo and its relation to distribution of (i) synaptic vesicles (sv) and (ii) functional synaptic proteins within the ...

Correction to: Protein Biomarkers and Neuroproteomics Characterization of Microvesicles/Exosomes from Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Following Traumatic Brain Injury

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a typographical error on Author’s name “Firas Kobessiy”. This should be corrected as “Firas Kobeissy”.

Peripheral Blood Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker of Alzheimer’s Disease: Are There Methodological Biases?

Mounting evidence that alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and signaling may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has suggested that its blood levels could be used as a biomarker of the disease. However, higher, lower, or unchanged circulating BDNF levels have all been described in AD patients compared to healthy controls. ...

Vitamin D Improves Neurogenesis and Cognition in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

The impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is believed to support early cognitive decline. Converging studies sustain the idea that vitamin D might be linked to the pathophysiology of AD and to hippocampal neurogenesis. Nothing being known about the effects of vitamin D on hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, we assessed them in a mouse ...

Immune Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder—Could They Hold Promise for Causative Treatment?

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in language and communication development, social behavior, and the occurrence of stereotypic patterns of behavior and interests. Despite substantial speculation about causes of ASD, its exact etiology remains unknown. Recent studies highlight a link between immune dysfunction and behavioral traits. Various immune ...

Multiple Immune-Inflammatory and Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Pathways Explain the Frequent Presence of Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

Patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) or major depressive disorder (MDD) share a wide array of biological abnormalities which are increasingly considered to play a contributory role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of both illnesses. Shared abnormalities include peripheral inflammation, neuroinflammation, chronic oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial ...

Alpha-synuclein alters differently gene expression of Sirts, PARPs and other stress response proteins: implications for neurodegenerative disorders

Alpha-synuclein (ASN) is a presynaptic protein that can easily change its conformation under different types of stress. It’s assumed that ASN plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the molecular mechanism of ASN toxicity has not been elucidated. This study focused on the role of extracellular ASN (eASN) in regulation of ...

Humoral Immunity Profiling of Subjects with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Using a Random Peptide Microarray Differentiates Cases from Controls with High Specificity and Sensitivity

Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a complex, heterogeneous illness of unknown etiology. The search for biomarkers that can delineate cases from controls is one of the most active areas of ME research; however, little progress has been made in achieving this goal. In contrast to identifying biomarkers that are directly involved in the pathological process, an immunosignature ...

LRRK2 Expression Is Deregulated in Fibroblasts and Neurons from Parkinson Patients with Mutations in PINK1

Mutations in PINK1 (PARK6), a serine/threonine kinase involved in mitochondrial homeostasis, are associated with early onset Parkinson’s disease. Fibroblasts from Parkinson’s disease patients with compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.1488 + 1G > A; c.1252_1488del) showed no apparent signs of mitochondrial impairment. To elucidate changes primarily caused by lack of ...

A Novel Ultrasensitive In Situ Hybridization Approach to Detect Short Sequences and Splice Variants with Cellular Resolution

Investigating the expression of RNAs that differ by short or single nucleotide sequences at a single-cell level in tissue has been limited by the sensitivity and specificity of in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. Detection of short isoform-specific sequences requires RNA isolation for PCR analysis—an approach that loses the regional and cell-type-specific distribution of ...

Homozygous Expression of Mutant ELOVL4 Leads to Seizures and Death in a Novel Animal Model of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Deficiency

Lipids are essential components of the nervous system. However, the functions of very long-chain fatty acids (VLC-FA; ≥ 28 carbons) in the brain are unknown. The enzyme ELOngation of Very Long-chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of VLC-FA (Agbaga et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(35): 12843–12848, 2008; Logan et al., J Lipid Res 55(4): ...

GSK3β Controls mTOR and Prosurvival Signaling in Neurons

Glycogen synthase kinases-3β (GSK3β) is a key regulator of cell homeostasis. In neurons, GSK3β contributes to control of neuronal transmission and plasticity. Despite extensive studies in non-neuronal cells, crosstalk between GSK3β and other signaling pathways remains not well defined in neurons. In the present study, we report that GSK3β positively affected the activity of ...