Molecular Neurobiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/12035

List of Papers (Total 343)

Perturbed Developmental Serotonin Signaling Affects Prefrontal Catecholaminergic Innervation and Cortical Integrity

Proper development of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), crucial for correct cognitive functioning, requires projections from, among others, the serotonergic (5-HT) and catecholaminergic systems, but it is unclear how these systems influence each other during development. Here, we describe the parallel development of the 5-HT and catecholaminergic prefrontal projection systems...

Characterization of Brain Lysosomal Activities in GBA-Related and Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Mutations in the GBA gene, encoding the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase (GCase), are the most common known genetic risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The present study aims to gain more insight into changes in lysosomal activity in different brain regions of sporadic PD and DLB patients, screened for GBA variants. Enzymatic...

The Role of the Periaqueductal Gray Matter in Lower Urinary Tract Function

The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), as one of the mostly preserved evolutionary components of the brain, is an axial structure modulating various important functions of the organism, including autonomic, behavioral, pain, and micturition control. It has a critical role in urinary bladder physiology, with respect to storage and voiding of urine. The PAG has a columnar...

Could Alzheimer’s Disease Originate in the Periphery and If So How So?

The classical amyloid cascade model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been challenged by several findings. Here, an alternative molecular neurobiological model is proposed. It is shown that the presence of the APOE ε4 allele, altered miRNA expression and epigenetic dysregulation in the promoter region and exon 1 of TREM2, as well as ANK1 hypermethylation and altered levels of...

Modulatory Effects of Fingolimod (FTY720) on the Expression of Sphingolipid Metabolism-Related Genes in an Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Sphingolipid signaling disturbances correlate with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. We examined the influence of FTY720/fingolimod, a sphingosine analog and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, on the expression of sphingolipid metabolism and signaling genes in a mouse transgenic AD model. Our results demonstrated that AβPP (V717I) transgene led with age to...

Triclosan-Evoked Neurotoxicity Involves NMDAR Subunits with the Specific Role of GluN2A in Caspase-3-Dependent Apoptosis

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent that is used extensively in personal care and in sanitising products. A number of studies have shown the presence of TCS in different human tissues such as blood, adipose tissue, the liver, brain as well as in breast milk and urine. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that are widely expressed in the...

Elevation of MMP-9 Levels Promotes Epileptogenesis After Traumatic Brain Injury

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a recurrent seizure disorder that often develops secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI) that is caused by an external mechanical force. Recent evidence shows that the brain extracellular matrix plays a major role in the remodeling of neuronal connections after injury. One of the proteases that is presumably responsible for this process is matrix...

Evaluation of Animal Models by Comparison with Human Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

Despite many efforts to alleviate the pathological conditions of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), effective therapeutic drugs have not been developed, mainly because of the lack of molecular information about AD and animal models. We observed the reciprocal regulation of AD-associated genes (AD genes) and their related functions. Upregulated AD genes were positioned in central regions...

MicroRNA Expression Levels Are Altered in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Young-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prior to the age of 65 years is classified as young-onset (YOAD), whereas diagnosis after the age of 65 years is considered late-onset (LOAD). Although rare autosomal mutations more commonly associate with YOAD, most YOAD and LOAD cases are sporadic. YOAD and LOAD share amyloid and tau pathology, but many YOAD patients show increased...

Detecting Alpha Synuclein Seeding Activity in Formaldehyde-Fixed MSA Patient Tissue by PMCA

Alpha synuclein (α-syn) is central to the pathogenesis of a group of neurodegenerative disorders known as synucleinopathies, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Aggregation of α-syn is the pathologic hallmark of these disorders and is intimately associated with the pathogenic changes. The prion-like hypothesis...

SB-334867 (an Orexin-1 Receptor Antagonist) Effects on Morphine-Induced Sensitization in Mice—a View on Receptor Mechanisms

The present study focused upon the role of SB-334867, an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, in the acquisition of morphine-induced sensitization to locomotor activity in mice. Behavioral sensitization is an enhanced systemic reaction to the same dose of an addictive substance, which assumingly increases both the desire for the drug and the risk of relapse to addiction. Morphine...

NTF3 Is a Novel Target Gene of the Transcription Factor POU3F2 and Is Required for Neuronal Differentiation

POU-homeodomain transcription factor POU3F2 is a critical transcription factor that participates in neuronal differentiation. However, little is known about its downstream mediators. Here genome-wide analyses of a human neuronal differentiation cell model, NT2D1, suggested neurotrophin-3 (NTF3), a key mediator of neuronal development during the early neurogenic period, as a...

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induces Myostatin High Molecular Weight Aggregates and Impairs Mature Myostatin Secretion

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most prevalent acquired muscle disorder in the elderly with no defined etiology or effective therapy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and deposition of myostatin, a secreted negative regulator of muscle growth, have been implicated in disease pathology. The myostatin signaling pathway has emerged as a major target for symptomatic...

Rhythmic Diurnal Synthesis and Signaling of Retinoic Acid in the Rat Pineal Gland and Its Action to Rapidly Downregulate ERK Phosphorylation

Vitamin A is important for the circadian timing system; deficiency disrupts daily rhythms in activity and clock gene expression, and reduces the nocturnal peak in melatonin in the pineal gland. However, it is currently unknown how these effects are mediated. Vitamin A primarily acts via the active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), a transcriptional regulator with emerging non...

Activation of Nrf2 Pathway Contributes to Neuroprotection by the Dietary Flavonoid Tiliroside

Hyperactivated microglia plays a key role in regulating neuroinflammatory responses which cause damage to neurons. In recent years, substantial attention has been paid in identifying new strategies to abrogate neuroinflammation. Tiliroside, a natural dietary glycosidic flavonoid, is known to inhibit neuroinflammation. This study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms...

Validation of α-Synuclein as a CSF Biomarker for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

The analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers gains importance in the differential diagnosis of prion diseases. However, no single diagnostic tool or combination of them can unequivocally confirm prion disease diagnosis. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based immunoassays have demonstrated to achieve high diagnostic accuracy in a variety of sample types due to their high...

Extracellular Matrix Modulation Is Driven by Experience-Dependent Plasticity During Stroke Recovery

Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory...

SLAB51 Probiotic Formulation Activates SIRT1 Pathway Promoting Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects in an AD Mouse Model

The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication network functionally linking the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this, the rational manipulation of intestinal microbiota represents a novel attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CNS-associated disorders. In this study, we explored the properties of a probiotic formulation (namely SLAB51) in...

Ambra1 Shapes Hippocampal Inhibition/Excitation Balance: Role in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission cause brain network dysfunction and are central to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Parvalbumin interneurons are highly implicated in this imbalance. Here, we probed the social behavior and hippocampal function of mice carrying a haploinsufficiency for Ambra1, a pro-autophagic gene crucial for...

Visualization of Altered Hippocampal Connectivity in an Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus. Despite the pathological importance of the hippocampal degeneration in AD, little topographical evidence exists of impaired hippocampal connectivity in patients with AD. To investigate the anatomical connections of the hippocampus, we injected the...

Neurobiological Correlates of Alpha-Tocopherol Antiepileptogenic Effects and MicroRNA Expression Modulation in a Rat Model of Kainate-Induced Seizures

Seizure-triggered maladaptive neural plasticity and neuroinflammation occur during the latent period as a key underlying event in epilepsy chronicization. Previously, we showed that α-tocopherol (α-T) reduces hippocampal neuroglial activation and neurodegeneration in the rat model of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE). These findings allowed us to postulate an...