Journal of Radiation Research

http://jrr.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 2,577)

A study on a dental device for the prevention of mucosal dose enhancement caused by backscatter radiation from dental alloy during external beam radiotherapy

The changes in dose distribution caused by backscatter radiation from a common commercial dental alloy (Au–Ag–Pd dental alloy; DA) were investigated to identify the optimal material and thicknesses of a dental device (DD) for effective prevention of mucositis. To this end, 1 cm3 of DA was irradiated with a 6-MV X-ray beam (100 MU) in a field size of 10 × 10 cm2 using a Novalis TX...

Follow-up and evaluation of the pregnancy outcome in women of reproductive age with Graves’ disease after 131Iodine treatment

The aims of the present study were to analyze the outcomes of pregnancy, after 131I treatment, in patients of reproductive age with Graves’ hyperthyroidism and to investigate the effects, if any, of the 131I treatment on the mothers and newborns. From 2009 to 2014, 257 pregnant female patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism in the outpatients at the Department of Nuclear Medicine...

Evaluation of the radiobiological gamma index with motion interplay in tangential IMRT breast treatment

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the motion interplay effect in early-stage left-sided breast cancer intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), incorporating the radiobiological gamma index (RGI). The IMRT dosimetry for various breathing amplitudes and cycles was investigated in 10 patients. The predicted dose was calculated using the convolution of...

Carbon-ion radiotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer with bladder invasion

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer with bladder invasion by a subset analysis of pooled data from eight prospective clinical trials at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Between June 1995 and January 2014, 29 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer...

Investigation of whether in-room CT-based adaptive intracavitary brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer is robust against interfractional location variations of organs and/or applicators

This study investigates whether in-room computed tomography (CT)-based adaptive treatment planning (ATP) is robust against interfractional location variations, namely, interfractional organ motions and/or applicator displacements, in 3D intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for uterine cervical cancer. In ATP, the radiation treatment plans, which have been designed based on planning...

Dose–volume analysis of predictors for chronic gastrointestinal complications in patients with cervical cancer treated with postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and whole-pelvic radiation therapy

The purpose of this study is to evaluate dose–volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in patients with cervical cancer who have undergone postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). The subjects were 135 patients who had undergone postoperative WPRT with concurrent nedaplatin-based...

Accuracy evaluation of a 3D-printed individual template for needle guidance in head and neck brachytherapy

To transfer the preplan for the head and neck brachytherapy to the clinical implantation procedure, a preplan-based 3D-printed individual template for needle insertion guidance had previously been designed and used. The accuracy of needle insertion using this kind template was assessed in vivo. In the study, 25 patients with head and neck tumors were implanted with 125I...

Metabolic tumor volume on FDG-PET/CT is a possible prognostic factor for Stage I lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy: a retrospective clinical study

The aim of this study was to determine whether metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are associated with outcomes in Stage I lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Thirty-eight patients underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) within 60 days before SBRT at...

Characterization of histone modifications associated with DNA damage repair genes upon exposure to gamma rays in Arabidopsis seedlings

Dynamic histone modifications play an important role in controlling gene expression in response to various environmental cues. This mechanism of regulation of gene expression is important for sessile organisms, like land plants. We have previously reported consistent upregulation of various marker genes in response to gamma rays at various post-irradiation times. In the present...

Dosimetric impact of an air passage on intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer

The brachytherapy dose calculations used in treatment planning systems (TPSs) have conventionally been performed assuming homogeneous water. Using measurements and a Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluated the dosimetric impact of an air passage on brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. To obtain the geometrical characteristics of an air passage, we analyzed the anatomical information...

The effects of a 50-Hz magnetic field on the cardiovascular system in rats

A 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) is a potential health-risk factor. Its effects on the cardiovascular system have not been fully investigated. This study was conducted to explore the effects of long-term exposure to a 50-Hz MF on the cardiovascular system. In the study, an exposure system was constructed, and the distribution of the 50-Hz MF was determined. Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley...

Effects of combined radiofrequency field exposure on amyloid-beta–induced cytotoxicity in HT22 mouse hippocampal neurones

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease and it is caused by neuronal death in the brain. Recent studies have shown that non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) radiation has some beneficial cognitive effects in animal models of AD. In this study, we examined the effect of combined RF radiation on amyloid-beta (Aβ)–induced...

Chronic exposure of adult, postnatal and in utero rat models to low-dose 137Cesium: impact on circulating biomarkers

The presence of 137Cesium (137Cs) in the environment after nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and more recently Fukushima Daiichi raises many health issues for the surrounding populations chronically exposed through the food chain. To mimic different exposure situations, we set up a male rat model of exposure by chronic ingestion of a 137Cs concentration likely to be ingested daily...

Dependence and independence of survival parameters on linear energy transfer in cells and tissues

Carbon-ion radiotherapy has been used to treat more than 9000 cancer patients in the world since 1994. Spreading of the Bragg peak is necessary for carbon-ion radiotherapy, and is designed based on the linear–quadratic model that is commonly used for photon therapy. Our recent analysis using in vitro cell kills and in vivo mouse tissue reaction indicates that radiation quality...

Neutron relative biological effectiveness in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: a critical review

The calculated risk of cancer in humans due to radiation exposure is based primarily on long-term follow-up studies, e.g. the life-span study (LSS) on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since A-bomb radiation consists of a mixture of γ-rays and neutrons, it is essential that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons is adequately evaluated if...

Carbon-ion pencil beam scanning for thoracic treatment – initiation report and dose metrics evaluation

Carbon-ion beam scanning has not previously been used for moving tumor treatments. We have commenced respiratory-gated carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) in the thoracic and abdominal regions under free-breathing conditions as a clinical trial. This study aimed to investigate this treatment in the lungs in comparison with passive scattering CIRT. Five patients had thoracic tumors...

PU-H71, a novel Hsp90 inhibitor, as a potential cancer-specific sensitizer to carbon-ion beam therapy

PU-H71, a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, has yielded therapeutic efficacy in many preclinical models and is currently in clinical trials. Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) has provided successful tumor control; however, there is still room for improvement, particularly in terms of tumor-specific radiosensitization. The Hsp90 inhibitor PU-H71 has been shown to sensitize...

A novel Nrf2 activator from microbial transformation inhibits radiation-induced dermatitis in mice

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that regulates many antioxidants, and we have recently succeeded in obtaining a novel Nrf2 activator, RS9, from microbial transformation. RS9 is categorized as a triterpenoid, and well-known triterpenoids such as RTA 402 (bardoxolone methyl) and RTA 408 have been tested in clinical trials. RTA 408...

Dosimetric comparison of carbon ion and X-ray radiotherapy for Stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer

The present study compared the dose–volume histograms of patients with Stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with carbon ion radiotherapy with those of patients treated with X-ray radiotherapy. Patients with Stage IIIA NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach) were enrolled. Both radiotherapy plans were calculated with the same targets and organs at risk on the...

Radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the predictive value of interim survival assessment

Pretreatment characteristics are suggested as predictive and/or prognostic factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, individual tumor radiosensitivities have previously not been considered. As boost planning is recommended for NPC, we performed interim assessments of magnetic resonance (MR) images for boost planning and retrospectively evaluated their predictive value...

Impact of pretreatment whole-tumor perfusion computed tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography measurements on local control of non–small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy

This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the average iodine density (AID) detected by dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) yielded by [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Seventy-four...

Whole-pelvic radiotherapy with spot-scanning proton beams for uterine cervical cancer: a planning study

The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric parameters of whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) for cervical cancer among plans involving 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). The dose distributions of 3D-CRT-, IMRT-, and SSPT-based WPRT plans were compared in 10 patients with cervical cancer. All...

Efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis/inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis: evaluation by comparison with conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Forty-three patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT)/inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis (IVCTT) treated with SBRT (27 with CyberKnife (CK) and 16 with TrueBeam (TB)) from April 2013 to December 2014, and 54 treated with 3DCRT...

Consecutive CT-guided core needle tissue biopsy of lung lesions in the same dog at different phases of radiation-induced lung injury

This project aimed to set up a Beagle dog model of radiation-induced lung injury in order to supply fresh lung tissue samples in the different injury phases for gene and protein research. Three dogs received 18 Gy X-ray irradiation in one fraction, another three dogs received 8 Gy in each of three fractions at weekly intervals, and one control dog was not irradiated. Acute...

A calibration method for realistic neutron dosimetry in radiobiological experiments assisted by MCNP simulation

Many studies on biological effects of neutrons involve dose responses of neutrons, which rely on accurately determined absorbed doses in the irradiated cells or living organisms. Absorbed doses are difficult to measure, and are commonly surrogated with doses measured using separate detectors. The present work describes the determination of doses absorbed in the cell layer...