Previous research indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk of becoming frail. Emerging evidence also indicates that the Mediterranean diet may prevent frailty in the older population.
Goals of treating childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM), in addition to anthropometric recovery and preventing short-term mortality, include reducing the risks of subsequent serious infections. How quickly and how much the risk of serious illness changes during rehabilitation are unknown but could inform improving the design and scope of interventions.
Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high–glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear.
Prevalence of young adult hearing loss is high in low-resource societies; the reasons for this are likely complex but could involve early childhood undernutrition.
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a major problem in older adults. Whether poor diet quality is an indicator for the long-term development of PEM is unknown.
Background: There is strong epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber intake is protective against overweight and obesity; however, results of intervention studies have been mixed. Soluble fiber beneficially affects metabolism, and fiber supplementation may be a feasible approach to improve body composition and glycemia in adults with overweight and obesity.
The determination of iron status is challenging when concomitant infection and inflammation are present because of confounding effects of the acute-phase response on the interpretation of most iron indicators. This review summarizes the effects of inflammation on indicators of iron status and assesses the impact of a regression analysis to adjust for inflammation on estimates of...
Background: Despite the continued high prevalence of faltering growth, height monitoring remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries.
Background: A low-calorie diet (LCD) reduces fat mass excess, improves insulin sensitivity, and alters adipose tissue (AT) gene expression, yet the relation with clinical outcomes remains unclear.
Background: Approximately 20–30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.
Background: For older groups, being overweight [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 25 to <30] is reportedly associated with a lower or similar risk of mortality than being normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to <25). However, this “risk paradox” is partly explained by smoking and disease-associated weight loss. This paradox may also arise from BMI failing to measure fat redistribution to a...
Background: A lack of information on the etiology of anemia has hampered the design and monitoring of anemia-control efforts.
Background: In many settings, populations experience recurrent exposure to inflammatory agents that catalyze fluctuations in the concentrations of acute-phase proteins and certain micronutrient biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ferritin, and retinol. Few data are available on the prevalence and predictors of inflammation in diverse settings.
Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response.
Background: Despite the high risk of compromised nutrition, evidence of the effect of refugee rations on fetal growth is limited. A new ration containing micronutrient-fortified flour without increased caloric content of the general food basket was introduced to the Maela refugee camp in Thailand, July 2004.
Background: Vitamin D may have anticancer activities. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in African Americans (AAs) may be a contributing factor to the cancer health disparities between AAs and European Americans (EAs).
Background: Frequent dairy consumption in childhood has been related to higher growth-hormone concentrations that may affect mammary gland and pubertal development.
Background: Studies have demonstrated associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and adiposity. It is unclear whether PUFAs in pregnancy have an effect on maternal weight retention after childbirth, which can contribute to long-term obesity.