The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

List of Papers (Total 3,690)

Recommendations for characterization and reporting of dietary fibers in nutrition research

Dietary fiber (DF) comprises a wide range of naturally occurring and modified materials with substantial variations in physical and chemical properties and potential physiologic effects. Although nutrition studies testing the effects of DF usually provide extensive detail on the physiologic responses, many still fail to adequately report the type and properties of the DF itself...

Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest

Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption.

Mediterranean diet and risk of frailty syndrome among women with type 2 diabetes

Previous research indicates that patients with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk of becoming frail. Emerging evidence also indicates that the Mediterranean diet may prevent frailty in the older population.

Changes in susceptibility to life-threatening infections after treatment for complicated severe malnutrition in Kenya

Goals of treating childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM), in addition to anthropometric recovery and preventing short-term mortality, include reducing the risks of subsequent serious infections. How quickly and how much the risk of serious illness changes during rehabilitation are unknown but could inform improving the design and scope of interventions.

Simulating long-term human weight-loss dynamics in response to calorie restriction

Mathematical models have been developed to predict body weight (BW) and composition changes in response to lifestyle interventions, but these models have not been adequately validated over the long term.

A small dose of whey protein co-ingested with mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals improves postprandial glycemia and suppresses appetite in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high–glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear.

Early childhood undernutrition increases risk of hearing loss in young adulthood in rural Nepal

Prevalence of young adult hearing loss is high in low-resource societies; the reasons for this are likely complex but could involve early childhood undernutrition.

Effects of isolated soluble fiber supplementation on body weight, glycemia, and insulinemia in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Background: There is strong epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber intake is protective against overweight and obesity; however, results of intervention studies have been mixed. Soluble fiber beneficially affects metabolism, and fiber supplementation may be a feasible approach to improve body composition and glycemia in adults with overweight and obesity.

Assessment of iron status in settings of inflammation: challenges and potential approaches

The determination of iron status is challenging when concomitant infection and inflammation are present because of confounding effects of the acute-phase response on the interpretation of most iron indicators. This review summarizes the effects of inflammation on indicators of iron status and assesses the impact of a regression analysis to adjust for inflammation on estimates of...

Time of day and eating behaviors are associated with the composition and function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota

Background: Preclinical research has shown that the gastrointestinal microbiota exhibits circadian rhythms and that the timing of food consumption can affect the composition and function of gut microbes. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on these relations in humans.

Soya, maize, and sorghum–based ready-to-use therapeutic food with amino acid is as efficacious as the standard milk and peanut paste–based formulation for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: a noninferiority individually randomized controlled efficacy clinical trial in Malawi

Background: Development of more cost-effective ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a global public health priority. To date, previous lower-cost recipes have been less effective than the standard peanut and milk (PM)–based RUTF, particularly in children aged <24 mo.

Home- and community-based growth monitoring to reduce early life growth faltering: an open-label, cluster-randomized controlled trial

Background: Despite the continued high prevalence of faltering growth, height monitoring remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries.

Long-term weight-loss maintenance in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized trial

Background: A formula low-energy diet (LED) reduces weight effectively in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis, but the role of LED in long-term weight-loss maintenance is unclear.

Transcriptome profiling from adipose tissue during a low-calorie diet reveals predictors of weight and glycemic outcomes in obese, nondiabetic subjects

Background: A low-calorie diet (LCD) reduces fat mass excess, improves insulin sensitivity, and alters adipose tissue (AT) gene expression, yet the relation with clinical outcomes remains unclear.

Interaction between genes and macronutrient intake on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic review and findings from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct

Background: Gene-diet interactions have been reported to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to our knowledge, few examples have been consistently replicated to date.

Central adiposity and the overweight risk paradox in aging: follow-up of 130,473 UK Biobank participants

Background: For older groups, being overweight [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 25 to <30] is reportedly associated with a lower or similar risk of mortality than being normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to <25). However, this “risk paradox” is partly explained by smoking and disease-associated weight loss. This paradox may also arise from BMI failing to measure fat redistribution to a...

Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly.