Journal of Cell Science

http://jcs.biologists.org

List of Papers (Total 15,347)

Low levels of endogenous or X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks activate apoptosis in adult neural stem cells

The embryonic neural stem cell compartment is characterised by rapid proliferation from embryonic day (E)11 to E16.5, high endogenous DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and sensitive activation of apoptosis. Here, we ask whether DSBs arise in the adult neural stem cell compartments, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the ...

Cytoophidium assembly reflects upregulation of IMPDH activity

Cytidine triphosphate synthase (CTPS) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) (both of which have two isoforms) can form fiber-like subcellular structures termed ‘cytoophidia’ under certain circumstances in mammalian cells. Although it has been shown that filamentation of CTPS downregulates its activity by disturbing conformational changes, the activity of IMPDH within ...

A Chlamydia effector recruits CEP170 to reprogram host microtubule organization

The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis deploys virulence effectors to subvert host cell functions enabling its replication within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The control of the host cytoskeleton is crucial for Chlamydia uptake, inclusion biogenesis and cell exit. Here, we demonstrate how a Chlamydia effector rearranges ...

mRNA encoding Sec61β, a tail-anchored protein, is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum

Although one pathway for the post-translational targeting of tail-anchored proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been well defined, it is unclear whether additional pathways exist. Here, we provide evidence that a subset of mRNAs encoding tail-anchored proteins, including Sec61β and nesprin-2, is partially localized to the surface of the ER in mammalian cells. In ...

RDGBα, a PtdIns-PtdOH transfer protein, regulates G-protein-coupled PtdIns(4,5)P2 signalling during Drosophila phototransduction

Many membrane receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC) during signalling, triggering changes in the levels of several plasma membrane lipids including phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. It is widely believed that exchange of lipids between the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required ...

Dictyostelium Nramp1, which is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian DMT1 transporter, mediates phagosomal iron efflux

The Nramp (Slc11) protein family is widespread in bacteria and eukaryotes, and mediates transport of divalent metals across cellular membranes. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has two Nramp proteins. Nramp1, like its mammalian ortholog (SLC11A1), is recruited to phagosomal and macropinosomal membranes, and confers resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Nramp2 is located ...

Characterization of Cep85 – a new antagonist of Nek2A that is involved in the regulation of centrosome disjunction

Nek2 has been implicated in centrosome disjunction at the onset of mitosis to promote bipolar spindle formation, and hyperactivation of Nek2 leads to the premature centrosome separation. Its activity, therefore, needs to be strictly regulated. In this study, we report that Cep85, an uncharacterized centrosomal protein, acts as a binding partner of Nek2A. It colocalizes with isoform ...

STX13 regulates cargo delivery from recycling endosomes during melanosome biogenesis

Melanosomes are a class of lysosome-related organelles produced by melanocytes. Biogenesis of melanosomes requires the transport of melanin-synthesizing enzymes from tubular recycling endosomes to maturing melanosomes. The SNARE proteins involved in these transport or fusion steps have been poorly studied. We found that depletion of syntaxin 13 (STX13, also known as STX12), a ...

The pro-inflammatory cytokine 14-3-3ε is a ligand of CD13 in cartilage

Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage involving abnormal communication between subchondral bone and cartilage. Our team previously identified 14-3-3ε protein as a subchondral bone soluble mediator altering cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CD13 (also known as ...

Binding of SGTA to Rpn13 selectively modulates protein quality control

Rpn13 is an intrinsic ubiquitin receptor of the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit that facilitates substrate capture prior to degradation. Here we show that the C-terminal region of Rpn13 binds to the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of SGTA, a cytosolic factor implicated in the quality control of mislocalised membrane proteins (MLPs). The overexpression of SGTA results in a ...

Modulation of flagellum attachment zone protein FLAM3 and regulation of the cell shape in Trypanosoma brucei life cycle transitions

The cell shape of Trypanosoma brucei is influenced by flagellum-to-cell-body attachment through a specialised structure – the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ). T. brucei exhibits numerous morphological forms during its life cycle and, at each stage, the FAZ length varies. We have analysed FLAM3, a large protein that localises to the FAZ region within the old and new flagellum. ...

Paxillin-dependent regulation of IGF2 and H19 gene cluster expression

Paxillin (PXN) is a focal adhesion protein that has been implicated in signal transduction from the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been shown to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. When inside the nucleus, paxillin promotes cell proliferation. Here, we introduce paxillin as a transcriptional regulator of IGF2 and H19 genes. It does not affect the allelic ...

Cezanne regulates E2F1-dependent HIF2α expression

Mechanisms regulating protein degradation ensure the correct and timely expression of transcription factors such as hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Under normal O2 tension, HIFα subunits are targeted for proteasomal degradation, mainly through vHL-dependent ubiquitylation. Deubiquitylases are responsible for reversing this process. Although the mechanism and regulation of HIFα by ...

The homeobox gene DLX4 regulates erythro-megakaryocytic differentiation by stimulating IL-1β and NF-κB signaling

Megakaryocyte and erythroid development are tightly controlled by a repertoire of cytokines, but it is not clear how cytokine-activated signaling pathways are controlled during development of these two lineages. Here, we identify that expression of DLX4, a transcription factor encoded by a homeobox gene, increases during megakaryopoiesis but decreases during erythropoiesis. ...

RNA splicing regulated by RBFOX1 is essential for cardiac function in zebrafish

Alternative splicing is one of the major mechanisms through which the proteomic and functional diversity of eukaryotes is achieved. However, the complex nature of the splicing machinery, its associated splicing regulators and the functional implications of alternatively spliced transcripts are only poorly understood. Here, we investigated the functional role of the splicing ...

Tropomyosin – master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton

Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a ...

The importance of indifference in scientific research

Current issues regarding scientific ethics have focused for the most part on regulations governing research and publication. I suggest that the internal process by which we separate self interest from the scientific process is a crucial and neglected part of training. Consideration of these issues might help us train better scientists instead of just scientists who adhere to the ...