Subterranean Biology

https://subtbiol.pensoft.net/

List of Papers (Total 61)

A new species of spider (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Islandiana) from a southern Indiana cave

The genus Islandiana (Araneae, Linyphiidae) was erected by Braendegaard in 1932 and is comprised of 14 species, most of which are native to North America. Herein we add a 15th species, Islandiana lewisi sp. n., from southern Indiana, USA. This species resembles both I. flavoides Ivie, 1965 and I. cavealis Ivie, 1965, the latter of which is geographically-close.

A new species of spider (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Islandiana) from a southern Indiana cave

The genus Islandiana (Araneae, Linyphiidae) was erected by Braendegaard in 1932 and is comprised of 14 species, most of which are native to North America. Herein we add a 15th species, Islandiana lewisi sp. n., from southern Indiana, USA. This species resembles both I. flavoides Ivie, 1965 and I. cavealis Ivie, 1965, the latter of which is geographically-close.

A redescription of the poorly known cave millipede Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985 (Diplopoda, Julida, Mongoliulidae), with an overview of the genus Skleroprotopus Attems, 1901

We redescribe the poorly known Chinese millipede Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985 recorded from Shi-Hua (Stone Flower) Cave, Fangshan County, Beijing. The species’ original description is in Chinese in an obscure outlet which significantly hampers its recognition from its congeners. Here, based on newly collected material, we provide the first scanning electron...

Neocarus spelaion sp. n. (Parasitiformes, Opilioacaridae), a new species of cave dwelling Neocarus from Minas Gerais state, Brazil

A new cave dwelling species of the genus Neocarus (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida: Opilioacaridae) is described from adult females and males collected in Minas Gerais state, southeast Brazil. Five or six d-type setae on palps, females with pregenital area hairless, genital setae smooth, cylindrical ovipositor with two terminal lobes, and males with genital and pregenital setae...

Troglomorphic features of Astroblepus pholeter, a cavefish from Ecuador, and possible introgressive hybridization

Cave organisms are often characterized by reduced pigmentation, eyesight, and enhanced mechanosensory functions. The stygobitic catfish Astroblepus pholeter is found within some subterranean drainages in Ecuador. The species was first described in 1962 with specimens that were all highly depigmented and troglomorphic. The next observations in the field occurred until 2011, 2015...

Phylogeographical convergence between Astyanax cavefish and mysid shrimps in the Sierra de El Abra, Mexico

The Sierra de El Abra is a long (120 km) and narrow (10 km) karstic area in northeastern Mexico. Some studies have suggested independent evolutionary histories for the multiple populations of blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus that inhabit this mountain range, despite the hydrological connections that may exist across the Sierra. Barriers between caves could have prevented...

First record of subterranean rissoidean gastropod assemblages in Southeast Asia (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pomatiopsidae)

In February 2017 we investigated several caves and karstic springs in Laos for the presence of underground freshwater gastropod species. We report previously unrecorded freshwater gastropod assemblages in the largest cave in Laos, Tham Khon Dôn, and in the third largest cave, Pha Soung, in Khammouane Province, with single finds in Na Li Cave (Khammouane Province), an unnamed cave...

First record of the family Stenasellidae (Crustacea, Isopoda) in Iran with the description of a new cave-dwelling species

A new cave isopod species of the genus Stenasellus Dollfus, 1897 (Stenasellidae) from Iran is reported and described. The new species, Stenasellus tashanensis sp. n. was found in Tashan Cave (Khuzestan province, southwest Iran). A complete description and drawings of the new species are provided. This new species is morphologically close to S. vermeuleni Magniez & Stock, 2000...

First report of the invasive alien species Caenoplana coerulea Moseley, 1877 (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Geoplanidae) in the subterranean environment of the Canary Islands

The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea Moseley, 1877 is reported for the first time in the hypogean environment. Seven individuals of C. coerulea were collected in the most humid branch of an abandoned water mine in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Due to its character of generalist predator, it should be considered a threat for the endemic subterranean fauna.

Cave-dwelling pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae): a review

Pholcidae are ubiquitous spiders in tropical and subtropical caves around the globe, yet very little is known about cave-dwelling pholcids beyond what is provided in taxonomic descriptions and faunistic papers. This paper provides a review based on a literature survey and unpublished information, while pointing out potential biases and promising future projects. A total of 473...

Diversity of Potamolithus (Littorinimorpha, Truncatelloidea) in a high-diversity spot for troglobites in southeastern Brazil: role of habitat fragmentation in the origin of subterranean fauna, and conservation status

The Alto Ribeira karst area, southeastern Brazil, is a high-diversity area for troglobites. Three species of freshwater gastropods Potamolithus occur in the area: P. ribeirensis, only found in epigean waters at the Iporanga and Ribeira rivers; P. troglobius, which is endemic to the Areias cave system; and P. karsticus, a troglophilic species from Calcário Branco Cave and an...

A new cave locality for Astyanax cavefish in Sierra de El Abra, Mexico

The characiform fish Astyanax mexicanus comes in two forms, a surface-dwelling morph which lives in the rivers of North and Central America and a blind, depigmented cave-dwelling morph which inhabits caves in Mexico. In recent years, this species has arguably become among the most influential model system for the study of evolutionary development and genomics in cave biology...

Is the Italian stream frog (Rana italica Dubois, 1987) an opportunistic exploiter of cave twilight zone?

Studies on frogs exploiting subterranean environments are extremely scarce, as these Amphibians are usually considered accidental in these environments. However, according to recent studies, some anurans actively select subterranean environments on the basis of specific environmental features, and thus are able to inhabit these environments throughout the year. We present the...

A morphological gap for Iberian Zospeum filled: Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae) a new species from Asturias (Spain)

Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. from Cueva de La Herrería (Llanes, Asturias) is described. It is characterized by a relatively large shell (1.4–1.8 mm height), conical, with ovate aperture, continuous peristome and thickened parietal callus; shell costulate except two first whorls; without any sort of inner formations. It is the first clearly costulate Iberian species, filling a...

The deep subterranean environment as a potential model system in ecological, biogeographical and evolutionary research

One of the main challenges in ecology, biogeography and evolution is to understand and predict how species may respond to environmental changes. Here we focus on the deep subterranean environment, a system that minimizes most of the typical uncertainties of studies on epigean (surface) environments. Caves are relatively homogeneous habitats with nearly constant environmental...

Kenneth A. Christiansen (1924–2017)

Kenneth A. Christianse, speleobiologist and collembologist, died at the age of 93.

Three new species of the subterranean huntsman spider genus Spariolenus (Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae) in Iran

The taxonomy of the genus Spariolenus Simon, 1880 in Iran is revisited by describing three new species: Spariolenus fathpouri sp. n. (male & female) from Pebdeh cave ecosystem (Khuzestan Province), S. mansourii sp. n. (male and female) a more widespread species discovered in the Pataveh and Nezel Caves entrances (Kohgiluye-va-Buyer Ahmad Province), and S. hormozii sp. n. (female...

An ecological survey of the invertebrate community at the epigean/hypogean interface

We studied the ecological continuum between caves and the associated network of fissures – Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) – in an hypogean site in the Graian Alps, Italy. Over one year, we surveyed the faunal assemblages by means of pitfall traps placed in the caves and specific subterranean sampling devices (SSD) buried in the MSS. We used generalized linear mixed models...

The first troglobiotic species of the family Pudeoniscidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea), with descriptions of a new genus and two new species

Approximately 170 species of terrestrial isopods are known from Brazil, but only 12 are considered troglobionts. The family Pudeoniscidae comprises four species in two genera, Brasiloniscus and Pudeoniscus. After the examination of material collected in caves in the state of Bahia, a new genus and two new species have been recognized, Iansaoniscus iraquara gen. et sp. n. from...

Six new subterranean freshwater gastropod species from northern Albania and some new records from Albania and Kosovo (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Moitessieriidae and Hydrobiidae)

During a field trip to the western part of the Balkan Peninsula in 2016, investigations of several caves and karstic springs revealed six new gastropod species living in subterranean waters and resulted in some noteworthy faunistic records. Five of the new species are assigned to the genus Paladilhiopsis Pavlović, 1913, namely P. prekalensis sp. n., P. lozeki sp. n., P. szekeresi...

A striking new genus and species of troglobitic Campodeidae (Diplura) from Central Asia

A striking new genus and species of Campodeidae (Diplura), Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, gen.n., sp.n., found in Kaptarhana cave in Eastern Turkmenistan is described. This represents the first record of Diplura from Central Asia and also the first terrestrial troglobiont found in Turkmenistan. The new taxon shows several unique characters such as the lack of crests on...

The troglomorphic adaptations of Namanereidinae (Annelida, Nereididae) revisited, including a redescription of Namanereis cavernicola (Solís-Weiss & Espinasa, 1991), and a new Caribbean species of Namanereis Chamberlin, 1919

Most species belonging to Namanereis Chamberlin, 1919 live in freshwater and subterranean waters, even in water bodies several meters above sea level. A new species belonging to the stygobiont Namanereis group is described here; it shares the common morphological characters of absence of eyes and pigmentation, bifid jaws, elongation of chaetae and cirri, which have been recently...

A new genus for Cirolana troglexuma Botosaneanu & Iliffe, 1997, an anchialine cave dwelling cirolanid isopod (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae) from the Bahamas

Cirolana troglexuma Botosaneanu & Iliffe, 1997 is redescribed and a Lucayalana Bruce & Brix, gen. n. established for the species. In total 38 specimens were collected from Hatchet Bay Cave, Eleuthera. Specimens on which previous records of L. troglexuma (from Exuma Cays, Cat Island, and Eleuthera) were based have been re-examined when possible. The diagnostic identifying...

Biospeleological activities in Central Europe – a status report

Catalogues of cave fauna from Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Germany (Swabian Alb, Franconian Alb, Westfalia, Hesse, Harz, Rhenish Palatinate and Saarland), and Luxembourg are available. Several activities deal with public relations, education, and training: the cave animal of the year, a camp for young cavers, the day nature, and the biospeleological workgroup. The German...

Notes on predator-prey relationships among Tanypodinae larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae) and mites (Acariformes) in Brazilian subterranean aquatic environments

Chironomidae larvae and mites are abundant and diversified groups that coexist in several environments. However, little importance has been attributed to their ecological relationships (predator–prey, parasitism, etc.). Therefore, the present study aimed to report the predation of mites by Tanypodinae larvae in Neotropical quartzite caves.