Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 4,633)

Bidirectional regulation of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by DEAH box helicase 9 (DHX9) in cancer

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing entails the enzymatic deamination of adenosines to inosines by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Dysregulated A-to-I editing has been implicated in various diseases, including cancers. However, the precise factors governing the A-to-I editing and their physiopathological implications remain as a long-standing question. Herein...

RecBCD coordinates repair of two ends at a DNA double-strand break, preventing aberrant chromosome amplification

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is critical for cell survival. A diverse range of organisms from bacteria to humans rely on homologous recombination for accurate DSB repair. This requires both coordinate action of the two ends of a DSB and stringent control of the resultant DNA replication to prevent unwarranted DNA amplification and aneuploidy. In Escherichia coli, RecBCD...

5-Formylcytosine mediated DNA–protein cross-links block DNA replication and induce mutations in human cells

5-Formylcytosine (5fC) is an epigenetic DNA modification introduced via TET protein-mediated oxidation of 5-methyl-dC. We recently reported that 5fC form reversible DNA–protein conjugates (DPCs) with histone proteins in living cells (Ji et al. (2017) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 56:14130–14134). We now examined the effects of 5fC mediated DPCs on DNA replication. Synthetic DNA duplexes...

HITS-CLIP in various brain areas reveals new targets and new modalities of RNA binding by fragile X mental retardation protein

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the functional deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in translational regulation of many messenger RNAs, playing key roles in synaptic morphology and plasticity. To date, no effective treatment for FXS is available. We searched...

Control of mRNA decapping by autoinhibition

5′ mediated cytoplasmic RNA decay is a conserved cellular process in eukaryotes. While the functions of the structured core domains in this pathway are well-studied, the role of abundant intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) is lacking. Here we reconstitute the Dcp1:Dcp2 complex containing a portion of the disordered C-terminus and show its activity is autoinhibited by linear...

Bacterial EndoMS/NucS acts as a clamp-mediated mismatch endonuclease to prevent asymmetric accumulation of replication errors

Mismatch repair (MMR) systems based on MutS eliminate mismatches originating from replication errors. Despite extensive conservation of mutS homologues throughout the three domains of life, Actinobacteria and some archaea do not have genes homologous to mutS. Here, we report that EndoMS/NucS of Corynebacterium glutamicum is the mismatch-specific endonuclease that functions...

Properties of gene expression and chromatin structure with mechanically regulated elongation

In recent years, physical elements of transcription have emerged as central in our understanding of gene expression. Recent work has been done introducing a simple description of the basic physical elements of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) rotation and DNA supercoiling are coupled (1). Here we generalize this framework to accommodate the behavior of...

PaintOmics 3: a web resource for the pathway analysis and visualization of multi-omics data

The increasing availability of multi-omic platforms poses new challenges to data analysis. Joint visualization of multi-omics data is instrumental in better understanding interconnections across molecular layers and in fully utilizing the multi-omic resources available to make biological discoveries. We present here PaintOmics 3, a web-based resource for the integrated...

HMMER web server: 2018 update

The HMMER webserver [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/hmmer] is a free-to-use service which provides fast searches against widely used sequence databases and profile hidden Markov model (HMM) libraries using the HMMER software suite (http://hmmer.org). The results of a sequence search may be summarized in a number of ways, allowing users to view and filter the significant hits by...

CoNekT: an open-source framework for comparative genomic and transcriptomic network analyses

The recent accumulation of gene expression data in the form of RNA sequencing creates unprecedented opportunities to study gene regulation and function. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the expression data from multiple species can elucidate which functional gene modules are conserved across species, allowing the study of the evolution of these modules. However, performing...

Snapshots of a molecular swivel in action

Members of the serine family of site-specific recombinases exchange DNA strands via 180° rotation about a central protein-protein interface. Modeling of this process has been hampered by the lack of structures in more than one rotational state for any individual serine recombinase. Here we report crystal structures of the catalytic domains of four constitutively active mutants of...

Polyadenylation and degradation of structurally abnormal mitochondrial tRNAs in human cells

RNA 3′ polyadenylation is known to serve diverse purposes in biology, in particular, regulating mRNA stability and translation. Here we determined that, upon exposure to high levels of the intercalating agent ethidium bromide (EtBr), greater than those required to suppress mitochondrial transcription, mitochondrial tRNAs in human cells became polyadenylated. Relaxation of the...

Coupling of replisome movement with nucleosome dynamics can contribute to the parent–daughter information transfer

Positioning of nucleosomes along the genomic DNA is crucial for many cellular processes that include gene regulation and higher order packaging of chromatin. The question of how nucleosome-positioning information from a parent chromatin gets transferred to the daughter chromatin is highly intriguing. Accounting for experimentally known coupling between replisome movement and...

The ATPase motor of the Chd1 chromatin remodeler stimulates DNA unwrapping from the nucleosome

Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent motors that reorganize DNA packaging by disrupting canonical histone–DNA contacts within the nucleosome. Here, we show that the Chd1 chromatin remodeler stimulates DNA unwrapping from the edge of the nucleosome in a nucleotide-dependent and DNA sequence-sensitive fashion. Nucleosome binding, monitored by stopped flow, was complex and...

High throughput discovery of protein variants using proteomics informed by transcriptomics

Proteomics informed by transcriptomics (PIT), in which proteomic MS/MS spectra are searched against open reading frames derived from de novo assembled transcripts, can reveal previously unknown translated genomic elements (TGEs). However, determining which TGEs are truly novel, which are variants of known proteins, and which are simply artefacts of poor sequence assembly, is...

Determination of an effective scoring function for RNA–RNA interactions with a physics-based double-iterative method

RNA–RNA interactions play fundamental roles in gene and cell regulation. Therefore, accurate prediction of RNA–RNA interactions is critical to determine their complex structures and understand the molecular mechanism of the interactions. Here, we have developed a physics-based double-iterative strategy to determine the effective potentials for RNA–RNA interactions based on a...

Protein composition of catalytically active U7-dependent processing complexes assembled on histone pre-mRNA containing biotin and a photo-cleavable linker

3′ end cleavage of metazoan replication-dependent histone pre-mRNAs requires the multi-subunit holo-U7 snRNP and the stem–loop binding protein (SLBP). The exact composition of the U7 snRNP and details of SLBP function in processing remain unclear. To identify components of the U7 snRNP in an unbiased manner, we developed a novel approach for purifying processing complexes from...

Turnover of aberrant pre-40S pre-ribosomal particles is initiated by a novel endonucleolytic decay pathway

Ribosome biogenesis requires more than 200 trans-acting factors to achieve the correct production of the two mature ribosomal subunits. Here, we have identified Efg1 as a novel, nucleolar ribosome biogenesis factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is directly linked to the surveillance of pre-40S particles. Depletion of Efg1 impairs early pre-rRNA processing, leading to a strong...

Multiple RPAs make WRN syndrome protein a superhelicase

RPA is known to stimulate the helicase activity of Werner syndrome protein (WRN), but the exact stimulation mechanism is not understood. We use single-molecule FRET and magnetic tweezers to investigate the helicase activity of WRN and its stimulation by RPA. We show that WRN alone is a weak helicase which repetitively unwind just a few tens of base pairs, but that binding of...

Visualizing structure-mediated interactions in supercoiled DNA molecules

We directly visualize the topology-mediated interactions between an unwinding site on a supercoiled DNA plasmid and a specific probe molecule designed to bind to this site, as a function of DNA supercoiling and temperature. The visualization relies on containing the DNA molecules within an enclosed array of glass nanopits using the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) imaging...

RNA-splicing factor SART3 regulates translesion DNA synthesis

Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is one mode of DNA damage tolerance that uses specialized DNA polymerases to replicate damaged DNA. DNA polymerase η (Polη) is well known to facilitate TLS across ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and mutations in POLH are implicated in skin carcinogenesis. However, the basis for recruitment of Polη to stalled replication forks is not completely...

DNA template sequence control of bacterial RNA polymerase escape from the promoter

Promoter escape involves breaking of the favourable contacts between RNA polymerase (RNAP) and the promoter to allow transition to an elongation complex. The sequence of DNA template that is transcribed during promoter escape (ITS; Initially Transcribed Sequence) can affect promoter escape by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. We employed a highly parallel strategy...

Stabilization of the methyl-CpG binding protein ZBTB38 by the deubiquitinase USP9X limits the occurrence and toxicity of oxidative stress in human cells

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of cell metabolism, and can also arise from environmental sources, such as toxins or radiation. Depending on dose and context, ROS have both beneficial and deleterious roles in mammalian development and disease, therefore it is crucial to understand how these molecules are generated, sensed, and detoxified. The question of how...

Dehydrated DNA in B-form: ionic liquids in rescue

The functional B-conformation of DNA succumbs to the A-form at low water activity. Methods for room temperature DNA storage that rely upon ‘anhydrobiosis’, thus, often encounter the loss of DNA activity due to the B→A-DNA transition. Here, we show that ionic liquids, an emerging class of green solvents, can induce conformational transitions in DNA and even rescue the dehydrated...

The arginine methyltransferase CARM1 represses p300•ACT•CREMτ activity and is required for spermiogenesis

CARM1 is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that has been firmly implicated in transcriptional regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CARM1 orchestrates transcriptional regulation are not fully understood, especially in a tissue-specific context. We found that Carm1 is highly expressed in the mouse testis and localizes to the nucleus in spermatids...