Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 4,964)

Shared nucleotide flanks confer transcriptional competency to bZip core motifs

Sequence-specific DNA binding recruits transcription factors (TFs) to the genome to regulate gene expression. Here, we perform high resolution mapping of CEBP proteins to determine how sequence dictates genomic occupancy. We demonstrate a fundamental difference between the sequence repertoire utilized by CEBPs in vivo versus the palindromic sequence preference reported by...

Bidirectional regulation of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by DEAH box helicase 9 (DHX9) in cancer

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing entails the enzymatic deamination of adenosines to inosines by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Dysregulated A-to-I editing has been implicated in various diseases, including cancers. However, the precise factors governing the A-to-I editing and their physiopathological implications remain as a long-standing question. Herein...

High-resolution RNA 3′-ends mapping of bacterial Rho-dependent transcripts

Transcription termination in bacteria can occur either via Rho-dependent or independent (intrinsic) mechanisms. Intrinsic terminators are composed of a stem-loop RNA structure followed by a uridine stretch and are known to terminate in a precise manner. In contrast, Rho-dependent terminators have more loosely defined characteristics and are thought to terminate in a diffuse...

RecBCD coordinates repair of two ends at a DNA double-strand break, preventing aberrant chromosome amplification

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is critical for cell survival. A diverse range of organisms from bacteria to humans rely on homologous recombination for accurate DSB repair. This requires both coordinate action of the two ends of a DSB and stringent control of the resultant DNA replication to prevent unwarranted DNA amplification and aneuploidy. In Escherichia coli, RecBCD...

Transfer-matrix calculations of the effects of tension and torque constraints on DNA–protein interactions

Organization and maintenance of the chromosomal DNA in living cells strongly depends on the DNA interactions with a plethora of DNA-binding proteins. Single-molecule studies show that formation of nucleoprotein complexes on DNA by such proteins is frequently subject to force and torque constraints applied to the DNA. Although the existing experimental techniques allow to exert...

5-Formylcytosine mediated DNA–protein cross-links block DNA replication and induce mutations in human cells

5-Formylcytosine (5fC) is an epigenetic DNA modification introduced via TET protein-mediated oxidation of 5-methyl-dC. We recently reported that 5fC form reversible DNA–protein conjugates (DPCs) with histone proteins in living cells (Ji et al. (2017) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 56:14130–14134). We now examined the effects of 5fC mediated DPCs on DNA replication. Synthetic DNA duplexes...

HITS-CLIP in various brain areas reveals new targets and new modalities of RNA binding by fragile X mental retardation protein

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the functional deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in translational regulation of many messenger RNAs, playing key roles in synaptic morphology and plasticity. To date, no effective treatment for FXS is available. We searched...

Control of mRNA decapping by autoinhibition

5′ mediated cytoplasmic RNA decay is a conserved cellular process in eukaryotes. While the functions of the structured core domains in this pathway are well-studied, the role of abundant intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) is lacking. Here we reconstitute the Dcp1:Dcp2 complex containing a portion of the disordered C-terminus and show its activity is autoinhibited by linear...

Bacterial EndoMS/NucS acts as a clamp-mediated mismatch endonuclease to prevent asymmetric accumulation of replication errors

Mismatch repair (MMR) systems based on MutS eliminate mismatches originating from replication errors. Despite extensive conservation of mutS homologues throughout the three domains of life, Actinobacteria and some archaea do not have genes homologous to mutS. Here, we report that EndoMS/NucS of Corynebacterium glutamicum is the mismatch-specific endonuclease that functions...

Properties of gene expression and chromatin structure with mechanically regulated elongation

In recent years, physical elements of transcription have emerged as central in our understanding of gene expression. Recent work has been done introducing a simple description of the basic physical elements of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) rotation and DNA supercoiling are coupled (1). Here we generalize this framework to accommodate the behavior of...

The Galaxy platform for accessible, reproducible and collaborative biomedical analyses: 2018 update

Galaxy (homepage: https://galaxyproject.org, main public server: https://usegalaxy.org) is a web-based scientific analysis platform used by tens of thousands of scientists across the world to analyze large biomedical datasets such as those found in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and imaging. Started in 2005, Galaxy continues to focus on three key challenges of data-driven...

PaintOmics 3: a web resource for the pathway analysis and visualization of multi-omics data

The increasing availability of multi-omic platforms poses new challenges to data analysis. Joint visualization of multi-omics data is instrumental in better understanding interconnections across molecular layers and in fully utilizing the multi-omic resources available to make biological discoveries. We present here PaintOmics 3, a web-based resource for the integrated...

HMMER web server: 2018 update

The HMMER webserver [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/hmmer] is a free-to-use service which provides fast searches against widely used sequence databases and profile hidden Markov model (HMM) libraries using the HMMER software suite (http://hmmer.org). The results of a sequence search may be summarized in a number of ways, allowing users to view and filter the significant hits by...

CoNekT: an open-source framework for comparative genomic and transcriptomic network analyses

The recent accumulation of gene expression data in the form of RNA sequencing creates unprecedented opportunities to study gene regulation and function. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the expression data from multiple species can elucidate which functional gene modules are conserved across species, allowing the study of the evolution of these modules. However, performing...

PhytoNet: comparative co-expression network analyses across phytoplankton and land plants

Phytoplankton consists of autotrophic, photosynthesizing microorganisms that are a crucial component of freshwater and ocean ecosystems. However, despite being the major primary producers of organic compounds, accounting for half of the photosynthetic activity worldwide and serving as the entry point to the food chain, functions of most of the genes of the model phytoplankton...

The TubR–centromere complex adopts a double-ring segrosome structure in Type III partition systems

In prokaryotes, the centromere is a specialized segment of DNA that promotes the assembly of the segrosome upon binding of the Centromere Binding Protein (CBP). The segrosome structure exposes a specific surface for the interaction of the CBP with the motor protein that mediates DNA movement during cell division. Additionally, the CBP usually controls the transcriptional...

Regional conformational flexibility couples substrate specificity and scissile phosphate diester selectivity in human flap endonuclease 1

Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the divalent metal ion-dependent removal of single-stranded DNA protrusions known as flaps during DNA replication and repair. Substrate selectivity involves passage of the 5′-terminus/flap through the arch and recognition of a single nucleotide 3′-flap by the α2–α3 loop. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that the solution conformation of...

Snapshots of a molecular swivel in action

Members of the serine family of site-specific recombinases exchange DNA strands via 180° rotation about a central protein-protein interface. Modeling of this process has been hampered by the lack of structures in more than one rotational state for any individual serine recombinase. Here we report crystal structures of the catalytic domains of four constitutively active mutants of...

Polyadenylation and degradation of structurally abnormal mitochondrial tRNAs in human cells

RNA 3′ polyadenylation is known to serve diverse purposes in biology, in particular, regulating mRNA stability and translation. Here we determined that, upon exposure to high levels of the intercalating agent ethidium bromide (EtBr), greater than those required to suppress mitochondrial transcription, mitochondrial tRNAs in human cells became polyadenylated. Relaxation of the...

Coupling of replisome movement with nucleosome dynamics can contribute to the parent–daughter information transfer

Positioning of nucleosomes along the genomic DNA is crucial for many cellular processes that include gene regulation and higher order packaging of chromatin. The question of how nucleosome-positioning information from a parent chromatin gets transferred to the daughter chromatin is highly intriguing. Accounting for experimentally known coupling between replisome movement and...

The ATPase motor of the Chd1 chromatin remodeler stimulates DNA unwrapping from the nucleosome

Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent motors that reorganize DNA packaging by disrupting canonical histone–DNA contacts within the nucleosome. Here, we show that the Chd1 chromatin remodeler stimulates DNA unwrapping from the edge of the nucleosome in a nucleotide-dependent and DNA sequence-sensitive fashion. Nucleosome binding, monitored by stopped flow, was complex and...

Tetramerization of MADS family transcription factors SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS is required for floral meristem determinacy in Arabidopsis

The MADS transcription factors (TF) constitute an ancient family of TF found in all eukaryotes that bind DNA as obligate dimers. Plants have dramatically expanded the functional diversity of the MADS family during evolution by adding protein–protein interaction domains to the core DNA-binding domain, allowing the formation of heterotetrameric complexes. Tetramerization of plant...

Mbd2-CP2c loop drives adult-type globin gene expression and definitive erythropoiesis

During hematopoiesis, red blood cells originate from the hematopoietic stem cell reservoir. Although the regulation of erythropoiesis and globin expression has been intensively investigated, the underlining mechanisms are not fully understood, including the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic factors. Here, we uncover that the Mbd2-free NuRD chromatin...

High throughput discovery of protein variants using proteomics informed by transcriptomics

Proteomics informed by transcriptomics (PIT), in which proteomic MS/MS spectra are searched against open reading frames derived from de novo assembled transcripts, can reveal previously unknown translated genomic elements (TGEs). However, determining which TGEs are truly novel, which are variants of known proteins, and which are simply artefacts of poor sequence assembly, is...

Improving RNA nearest neighbor parameters for helices by going beyond the two-state model

RNA folding free energy change nearest neighbor parameters are widely used to predict folding stabilities of secondary structures. They were determined by linear regression to datasets of optical melting experiments on small model systems. Traditionally, the optical melting experiments are analyzed assuming a two-state model, i.e. a structure is either complete or denatured...