Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 3,942)

Genetic instability associated with loop or stem–loop structures within transcription units can be independent of nucleotide excision repair

Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are found throughout the genome, and under some conditions can change in length over time. Germline and somatic expansions of trinucleotide repeats are associated with a series of severely disabling illnesses, including Huntington's disease. The underlying mechanisms that effect SSR expansions and contractions have been experimentally elusive, but...

Combined cistrome and transcriptome analysis of SKI in AML cells identifies SKI as a co-repressor for RUNX1

SKI is a transcriptional co-regulator and overexpressed in various human tumors, for example in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). SKI contributes to the origin and maintenance of the leukemic phenotype. Here, we use ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis to identify the epigenetic alterations induced by SKI overexpression in AML cells. We show that approximately two thirds of differentially...

Ezh2 promotes clock function and hematopoiesis independent of histone methyltransferase activity in zebrafish

EZH2 is a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that silences gene transcription via H3K27me3 and was shown to be essential for mammalian liver circadian regulation and hematopoiesis through gene silencing. Much less, however, is known about how Ezh2 acts in live zebrafish. Here, we show that zebrafish ezh2 is regulated directly by the circadian clock via both E-box and...

A comprehensive catalog of predicted functional upstream open reading frames in humans

Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) latent in mRNA transcripts are thought to modify translation of coding sequences by altering ribosome activity. Not all uORFs are thought to be active in such a process. To estimate the impact of uORFs on the regulation of translation in humans, we first circumscribed the universe of all possible uORFs based on coding gene sequence motifs and...

Structural changes in DNA-binding proteins on complexation

Characterization and prediction of the DNA-biding regions in proteins are essential for our understanding of how proteins recognize/bind DNA. We analyze the unbound (U) and the bound (B) forms of proteins from the protein–DNA docking benchmark that contains 66 binary protein–DNA complexes along with their unbound counterparts. Proteins binding DNA undergo greater structural...

An engineered RNA binding protein with improved splicing regulation

The muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of proteins are key developmental regulators of alternative splicing. Sequestration of MBNL proteins by expanded CUG/CCUG repeat RNA transcripts is a major pathogenic mechanism in the neuromuscular disorder myotonic dystrophy (DM). MBNL1 contains four zinc finger (ZF) motifs that form two tandem RNA binding domains (ZF1–2 and ZF3–4) which each...

Ksp1-dependent phosphorylation of eIF4G modulates post-transcriptional regulation of specific mRNAs under glucose deprivation conditions

Post-transcriptional regulation is an important mechanism for modulating gene expression and is performed by numerous mRNA-binding proteins. To understand the mechanisms underlying post-transcriptional regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation status of 32 mRNA-binding proteins under glucose deprivation conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 17 glucose...

Replication stress induces accumulation of FANCD2 at central region of large fragile genes

During mild replication stress provoked by low dose aphidicolin (APH) treatment, the key Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2 accumulates on common fragile sites, observed as sister foci, and protects genome stability. To gain further insights into FANCD2 function and its regulatory mechanisms, we examined the genome-wide chromatin localization of FANCD2 in this setting by ChIP-seq...

Systems assessment of transcriptional regulation on central carbon metabolism by Cra and CRP

Two major transcriptional regulators of carbon metabolism in bacteria are Cra and CRP. CRP is considered to be the main mediator of catabolite repression. Unlike for CRP, in vivo DNA binding information of Cra is scarce. Here we generate and integrate ChIP-exo and RNA-seq data to identify 39 binding sites for Cra and 97 regulon genes that are regulated by Cra in Escherichia coli...

TelAP1 links telomere complexes with developmental expression site silencing in African trypanosomes

During its life cycle, Trypanosoma brucei shuttles between a mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector. In the mammalian host, immune evasion of T. brucei bloodstream form (BSF) cells relies on antigenic variation, which includes monoallelic expression and periodic switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from only 1 of the 15...

Translational profiling of B cells infected with the Epstein-Barr virus reveals 5′ leader ribosome recruitment through upstream open reading frames

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome encodes several hundred transcripts. We have used ribosome profiling to characterize viral translation in infected cells and map new translation initiation sites. We show here that EBV transcripts are translated with highly variable efficiency, owing to variable transcription and translation rates, variable ribosome recruitment to the leader...

Di-copper metallodrugs promote NCI-60 chemotherapy via singlet oxygen and superoxide production with tandem TA/TA and AT/AT oligonucleotide discrimination

In order to expand the current repertoire of cancer treatments and to help circumvent limitations associated with resistance, the identification of new metallodrugs with high potency and novel mechanisms of action is of significant importance. Here we present a class of di-copper(II) complex based on the synthetic chemical nuclease [Cu(Phen)2]+ (where Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline...

Experimental maps of DNA structure at nucleotide resolution distinguish intrinsic from protein-induced DNA deformations

Recognition of DNA by proteins depends on DNA sequence and structure. Often unanswered is whether the structure of naked DNA persists in a protein–DNA complex, or whether protein binding changes DNA shape. While X-ray structures of protein–DNA complexes are numerous, the structure of naked cognate DNA is seldom available experimentally. We present here an experimental and...

The hepatitis C viral nonstructural protein 5A stabilizes growth-regulatory human transcripts

Numerous mammalian proto-oncogene and other growth-regulatory transcripts are upregulated in malignancy due to abnormal mRNA stabilization. In hepatoma cells expressing a hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicon, we found that the viral nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), a protein known to bind to viral RNA, also bound specifically to human cellular transcripts that encode...

Characterization of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of PARP2 and PARP3: new insights into DNA ADP-ribosylation

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) act as DNA break sensors and catalyze the synthesis of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) covalently attached to acceptor proteins at DNA damage sites. It has been demonstrated that both mammalian PARP1 and PARP2 PARylate double-strand break termini in DNA oligonucleotide duplexes in vitro. Here, we show that mammalian PARP2 and PARP3 can PARylate...

Protein-mediated looping of DNA under tension requires supercoiling

Protein-mediated DNA looping is ubiquitous in chromatin organization and gene regulation, but to what extent supercoiling or nucleoid associated proteins promote looping is poorly understood. Using the lac repressor (LacI), a paradigmatic loop-mediating protein, we measured LacI-induced looping as a function of either supercoiling or the concentration of the HU protein, an...

Brain-specific deletion of histone variant H2A.z results in cortical neurogenesis defects and neurodevelopmental disorder

Defects in neurogenesis alter brain circuit formations and may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Histone H2A.z, a variant of histone H2A, plays critical roles in chromatin structure and epigenetic regulation, but its function and mechanism in brain development remain largely unknown. Here, we find that the deletion of H2A.z results in enhanced...

Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes

Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15...

Epigenomics in 3D: importance of long-range spreading and specific interactions in epigenomic maintenance

Recent progresses of genome-wide chromatin conformation capture techniques have shown that the genome is segmented into hierarchically organized spatial compartments. However, whether this non-random 3D organization only reflects or indeed contributes—and how—to the regulation of genome function remain to be elucidated. The observation in many species that 3D domains correlate...

Splicing regulation by long noncoding RNAs

Massive high-throughput sequencing techniques allowed the identification of thousands of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and a plethora of different mRNA processing events occurring in higher organisms. Long ncRNAs can act directly as long transcripts or can be processed into active small si/miRNAs. They can modulate mRNA cleavage, translational repression or the epigenetic landscape of...

Riboswitching with ciprofloxacin—development and characterization of a novel RNA regulator

RNA molecules play important and diverse regulatory roles in the cell. Inspired by this natural versatility, RNA devices are increasingly important for many synthetic biology applications, e.g. optimizing engineered metabolic pathways, gene therapeutics or building up complex logical units. A major advantage of RNA is the possibility of de novo design of RNA-based sensing domains...

The C-terminal region of translesion synthesis DNA polymerase η is partially unstructured and has high conformational flexibility

Eukaryotic DNA polymerase η catalyzes translesion synthesis of thymine dimers and 8-oxoguanines. It is comprised of a polymerase domain and a C-terminal region, both of which are required for its biological function. The C-terminal region mediates interactions with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and other translesion synthesis proteins such as Rev1. This region...