Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 4,629)

RNentropy: an entropy-based tool for the detection of significant variation of gene expression across multiple RNA-Seq experiments

RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become the experimental standard in transcriptome studies. While most of the bioinformatic pipelines for the analysis of RNA-Seq data and the identification of significant changes in transcript abundance are based on the comparison of two conditions, it is common practice to perform several experiments in parallel (e.g. from different individuals...

Pursuing origins of (poly)ethylene glycol-induced G-quadruplex structural modulations

Molecular crowding conditions provided by high concentration of cosolutes are utilized for characterization of biomolecules in cell-mimicking environment and development of drug-delivery systems. In this context, (poly)ethylene glycols are often used for studying non-canonical DNA structures termed G-quadruplexes, which came into focus by emerging structural biology findings and...

Human La binds mRNAs through contacts to the poly(A) tail

In addition to a role in the processing of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts, La proteins are also associated with promoting cap-independent translation from the internal ribosome entry sites of numerous cellular and viral coding RNAs. La binding to RNA polymerase III transcripts via their common UUU-3’OH motif is well characterized, but the mechanism of La binding to coding...

Translation initiation of alphavirus mRNA reveals new insights into the topology of the 48S initiation complex

The topology and dynamics of the scanning ribosomal 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC) bound to mRNA and initiation factors (eIFs) are probably the least understood aspects of translation initiation in eukaryotes. Recently, we described a trapping mechanism in alphavirus that stalls the PIC during scanning of viral mRNA. Using this model, we were able to snapshot for the first time...

A new class of antibacterials, the imidazopyrazinones, reveal structural transitions involved in DNA gyrase poisoning and mechanisms of resistance

Imidazopyrazinones (IPYs) are a new class of compounds that target bacterial topoisomerases as a basis for their antibacterial activity. We have characterized the mechanism of these compounds through structural/mechanistic studies showing they bind and stabilize a cleavage complex between DNA gyrase and DNA (‘poisoning’) in an analogous fashion to fluoroquinolones, but without...

Protein plasticity driven by disorder and collapse governs the heterogeneous binding of CytR to DNA

The amplitude of thermodynamic fluctuations in biological macromolecules determines their conformational behavior, dimensions, nature of phase transitions and effectively their specificity and affinity, thus contributing to fine-tuned molecular recognition. Unique among large-scale conformational changes in proteins are temperature-induced collapse transitions in intrinsically...

Quantifying the stability of oxidatively damaged DNA by single-molecule DNA stretching

One of the most common DNA lesions is created when reactive oxygen alters guanine. 8-oxo-guanine may bind in the anti-conformation with an opposing cytosine or in the syn-conformation with an opposing adenine paired by transversion, and both conformations may alter DNA stability. Here we use optical tweezers to measure the stability of DNA hairpins containing 8-oxoguanine (8oxoG...

Human RAD51 rapidly forms intrinsically dynamic nucleoprotein filaments modulated by nucleotide binding state

Formation of RAD51 filaments on single-stranded DNA is an essential event during homologous recombination, which is required for homology search, strand exchange and protection of replication forks. Formation of nucleoprotein filaments (NF) is required for development and genomic stability, and its failure is associated with developmental abnormalities and tumorigenesis. Here we...

Human CHD1 is required for early DNA-damage signaling and is uniquely regulated by its N terminus

CHD1 is a conserved chromatin remodeling enzyme required for development and linked to prostate cancer in adults, yet its role in human cells is poorly understood. Here, we show that targeted disruption of the CHD1 gene in human cells leads to a defect in early double-strand break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination (HR), resulting in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation...

PERK/eIF2α signaling inhibits HIF-induced gene expression during the unfolded protein response via YB1-dependent regulation of HIF1α translation

HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1α) is the central regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen and its activity is deregulated in multiple human pathologies. Consequently, given the importance of HIF signaling in disease, there is considerable interest in developing strategies to modulate HIF1α activity and down-stream signaling events. In the present study we find that...

Role for first zinc finger of WT1 in DNA sequence specificity: Denys–Drash syndrome-associated WT1 mutant in ZF1 enhances affinity for a subset of WT1 binding sites

Wilms tumor protein (WT1) is a Cys2-His2 zinc-finger transcription factor vital for embryonic development of the genitourinary system. The protein contains a C-terminal DNA binding domain with four tandem zinc-fingers (ZF1–4). An alternative splicing of Wt1 can add three additional amino acids—lysine (K), threonine (T) and serine (S)—between ZF3 and ZF4. In the −KTS isoform, ZF2...

FoldX accurate structural protein–DNA binding prediction using PADA1 (Protein Assisted DNA Assembly 1)

The speed at which new genomes are being sequenced highlights the need for genome-wide methods capable of predicting protein–DNA interactions. Here, we present PADA1, a generic algorithm that accurately models structural complexes and predicts the DNA-binding regions of resolved protein structures. PADA1 relies on a library of protein and double-stranded DNA fragment pairs...

Mining for recurrent long-range interactions in RNA structures reveals embedded hierarchies in network families

The wealth of the combinatorics of nucleotide base pairs enables RNA molecules to assemble into sophisticated interaction networks, which are used to create complex 3D substructures. These interaction networks are essential to shape the 3D architecture of the molecule, and also to provide the key elements to carry molecular functions such as protein or ligand binding. They are...

Extensive and systematic rewiring of histone post-translational modifications in cancer model systems

Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that regulates gene expression and nuclear functions, and whose deregulation has been documented in different types of cancers. Therefore, the availability of relevant culture models that can be manipulated and that retain the epigenetic features of the tissue of origin is absolutely crucial for...

The structure of the RbBP5 β-propeller domain reveals a surface with potential nucleic acid binding sites

The multi-protein complex WRAD, formed by WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L and Dpy30, binds to the MLL SET domain to stabilize the catalytically active conformation required for histone H3K4 methylation. In addition, the WRAD complex contributes to the targeting of the activated complex to specific sites on chromatin. RbBP5 is central to MLL catalytic activation, by making critical contacts...

Structural analyses of NEAT1 lncRNAs suggest long-range RNA interactions that may contribute to paraspeckle architecture

Paraspeckles are nuclear bodies that regulate multiple aspects of gene expression. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 is essential for paraspeckle formation. NEAT1 has a highly ordered spatial organization within the paraspeckle, such that its 5′ and 3′ ends localize on the periphery of paraspeckle, while central sequences of NEAT1 are found within the paraspeckle core. As...

Structural divergence creates new functional features in alphavirus genomes

Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne pathogens that cause human diseases ranging from debilitating arthritis to lethal encephalitis. Studies with Sindbis virus (SINV), which causes fever, rash, and arthralgia in humans, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), which causes encephalitis, have identified RNA structural elements that play key roles in replication and pathogenesis...

Acetylation and phosphorylation of human TFAM regulate TFAM–DNA interactions via contrasting mechanisms

Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is essential for the maintenance, expression and transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, mechanisms for the post-translational regulation of TFAM are poorly understood. Here, we show that TFAM is lysine acetylated within its high-mobility-group box 1, a domain that can also be serine phosphorylated. Using bulk and single...

A survey of Type III restriction-modification systems reveals numerous, novel epigenetic regulators controlling phase-variable regulons; phasevarions

Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern...

Genetic instability associated with loop or stem–loop structures within transcription units can be independent of nucleotide excision repair

Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are found throughout the genome, and under some conditions can change in length over time. Germline and somatic expansions of trinucleotide repeats are associated with a series of severely disabling illnesses, including Huntington's disease. The underlying mechanisms that effect SSR expansions and contractions have been experimentally elusive, but...

Combined cistrome and transcriptome analysis of SKI in AML cells identifies SKI as a co-repressor for RUNX1

SKI is a transcriptional co-regulator and overexpressed in various human tumors, for example in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). SKI contributes to the origin and maintenance of the leukemic phenotype. Here, we use ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis to identify the epigenetic alterations induced by SKI overexpression in AML cells. We show that approximately two thirds of differentially...

Ezh2 promotes clock function and hematopoiesis independent of histone methyltransferase activity in zebrafish

EZH2 is a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that silences gene transcription via H3K27me3 and was shown to be essential for mammalian liver circadian regulation and hematopoiesis through gene silencing. Much less, however, is known about how Ezh2 acts in live zebrafish. Here, we show that zebrafish ezh2 is regulated directly by the circadian clock via both E-box and...

A comprehensive catalog of predicted functional upstream open reading frames in humans

Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) latent in mRNA transcripts are thought to modify translation of coding sequences by altering ribosome activity. Not all uORFs are thought to be active in such a process. To estimate the impact of uORFs on the regulation of translation in humans, we first circumscribed the universe of all possible uORFs based on coding gene sequence motifs and...

Structural changes in DNA-binding proteins on complexation

Characterization and prediction of the DNA-biding regions in proteins are essential for our understanding of how proteins recognize/bind DNA. We analyze the unbound (U) and the bound (B) forms of proteins from the protein–DNA docking benchmark that contains 66 binary protein–DNA complexes along with their unbound counterparts. Proteins binding DNA undergo greater structural...