Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 4,636)

Fluorescently-tagged human eIF3 for single-molecule spectroscopy

Human translation initiation relies on the combined activities of numerous ribosome-associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). The largest factor, eIF3, is an ∼800 kDa multiprotein complex that orchestrates a network of interactions with the small 40S ribosomal subunit, other eIFs, and mRNA, while participating in nearly every step of initiation. How these interactions take...

Efficient RNA pseudouridylation by eukaryotic H/ACA ribonucleoproteins requires high affinity binding and correct positioning of guide RNA

H/ACA ribonucleoproteins (H/ACA RNPs) are responsible for introducing many pseudouridines into RNAs, but are also involved in other cellular functions. Utilizing a purified and reconstituted yeast H/ACA RNP system that is active in pseudouridine formation under physiological conditions, we describe here the quantitative characterization of H/ACA RNP formation and function. This...

USP9X controls translation efficiency via deubiquitination of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1

Controlling translation initiation is an efficient way to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, current knowledge regarding regulatory proteins and their modes of controlling translation initiation is still limited. In this study, we employed tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to screen for unknown proteins associated with the...

Improving CRISPR–Cas specificity with chemical modifications in single-guide RNAs

CRISPR systems have emerged as transformative tools for altering genomes in living cells with unprecedented ease, inspiring keen interest in increasing their specificity for perfectly matched targets. We have developed a novel approach for improving specificity by incorporating chemical modifications in guide RNAs (gRNAs) at specific sites in their DNA recognition sequence...

Single-molecule compaction of megabase-long chromatin molecules by multivalent cations

To gain insight into the conformational properties and compaction of megabase-long chromatin molecules, we reconstituted chromatin from T4 phage DNA (165 kb) and recombinant human histone octamers (HO). The unimolecular compaction, induced by divalent Mg2+ or tetravalent spermine4+ cations, studied by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (FM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS...

Tyrosyl–DNA phosphodiesterases: rescuing the genome from the risks of relaxation

Tyrosyl–DNA Phosphodiesterases 1 (TDP1) and 2 (TDP2) are eukaryotic enzymes that clean-up after aberrant topoisomerase activity. While TDP1 hydrolyzes phosphotyrosyl peptides emanating from trapped topoisomerase I (Top I) from the 3′ DNA ends, topoisomerase 2 (Top II)-induced 5′-phosphotyrosyl residues are processed by TDP2. Even though the canonical functions of TDP1 and TDP2...

Reconstitution of the CstF complex unveils a regulatory role for CstF-50 in recognition of 3′-end processing signals

Cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) is a highly conserved protein complex composed of three subunits that recognizes G/U-rich sequences downstream of the polyadenylation signal of eukaryotic mRNAs. While CstF has been identified over 25 years ago, the architecture and contribution of each subunit to RNA recognition have not been fully understood. In this study, we provide a...

Crystal structure of NucB, a biofilm-degrading endonuclease

Bacterial biofilms are a complex architecture of cells that grow on moist interfaces, and are held together by a molecular glue of extracellular proteins, sugars and nucleic acids. Biofilms are particularly problematic in human healthcare as they can coat medical implants and are thus a potential source of disease. The enzymatic dispersal of biofilms is increasingly being...

Structure of mycobacterial 3′-to-5′ RNA:DNA helicase Lhr bound to a ssDNA tracking strand highlights distinctive features of a novel family of bacterial helicases

Mycobacterial Lhr is a DNA damage-inducible superfamily 2 helicase that uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to drive unidirectional 3′-to-5′ translocation along single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and to unwind RNA:DNA duplexes en route. ATPase, translocase and helicase activities are encompassed within the N-terminal 856-amino acid segment. The crystal structure of Lhr-(1–856...

Novel structural features drive DNA binding properties of Cmr, a CRP family protein in TB complex mycobacteria

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes two CRP/FNR family transcription factors (TF) that contribute to virulence, Cmr (Rv1675c) and CRPMt (Rv3676). Prior studies identified distinct chromosomal binding profiles for each TF despite their recognizing overlapping DNA motifs. The present study shows that Cmr binding specificity is determined by discriminator nucleotides at motif...

Shaping epigenetic memory via genomic bookmarking

Reconciling the stability of epigenetic patterns with the rapid turnover of histone modifications and their adaptability to external stimuli is an outstanding challenge. Here, we propose a new biophysical mechanism that can establish and maintain robust yet plastic epigenetic domains via genomic bookmarking (GBM). We model chromatin as a recolourable polymer whose segments bear...

Structural basis of DNA duplex distortion induced by thiazole-containing hairpin polyamides

This manuscript reports the molecular basis for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding of hairpin polyamides incorporating a 5-alkyl thiazole (Nt) unit. Hairpin polyamides containing an N-terminal Nt unit induce higher melting stabilisation of target dsDNA sequences relative to an archetypical hairpin polyamide incorporating an N-terminal imidazole (Im) unit. However, modification...