Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 5,431)

Targeted nanocomplex carrying siRNA against MALAT1 sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide

Intrinsic therapeutic resistance especially in cancer stem cells (CSCs) together with extensive tumor cell infiltration and restricted permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by drugs may all contribute to the treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), metastasis-associated lung...

Unveiling structural and functional divergences of bacterial tRNA dihydrouridine synthases: perspectives on the evolution scenario

Post-transcriptional base modifications are important to the maturation process of transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Certain modifications are abundant and present at several positions in tRNA as for example the dihydrouridine, a modified base found in the three domains of life. Even though the function of dihydrourine is not well understood, its high content in tRNAs from psychrophilic...

Recombination directionality factor gp3 binds ϕC31 integrase via the zinc domain, potentially affecting the trajectory of the coiled-coil motif

To establish a prophage state, the genomic DNA of temperate bacteriophages normally becomes integrated into the genome of their host bacterium by integrase-mediated, site-specific DNA recombination. Serine integrases catalyse a single crossover between an attachment site in the host (attB) and a phage attachment site (attP) on the circularized phage genome to generate the...

ZNF830 mediates cancer chemoresistance through promoting homologous-recombination repair

Homologous recombination (HR), which mediates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), is crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and enhancing survival in response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in human cancers. However, the mechanisms of HR repair in treatment resistance for the improvement of cancer therapy remains unclear. Here, we report that the zinc finger...

Dormant origins and fork protection mechanisms rescue sister forks arrested by transcription

The yeast RNA/DNA helicase Sen1, Senataxin in human, preserves the integrity of replication forks encountering transcription by removing RNA-DNA hybrids. Here we show that, in sen1 mutants, when a replication fork clashes head-on with transcription is arrested and, as a consequence, the progression of the sister fork moving in the opposite direction within the same replicon is...

JUNB governs a feed-forward network of TGFβ signaling that aggravates breast cancer invasion

It is well established that transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) switches its function from being a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter during the course of tumorigenesis, which involves both cell-intrinsic and environment-mediated mechanisms. We are interested in breast cancer cells, in which SMAD mutations are rare and interactions between SMAD and other transcription factors...

NRF2 regulates endothelial glycolysis and proliferation with miR-93 and mediates the effects of oxidized phospholipids on endothelial activation

Phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC), are the major components of cell membranes. Their exposure to reactive oxygen species creates oxidized phospholipids, which predispose to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders through endothelial activation and dysfunction. Although the effects of oxidized PAPC...

Selective alkylation of T–T mismatched DNA using vinyldiaminotriazine–acridine conjugate

The alkylation of the specific higher-order nucleic acid structures is of great significance in order to control its function and gene expression. In this report, we have described the T–T mismatch selective alkylation with a vinyldiaminotriazine (VDAT)–acridine conjugate. The alkylation selectively proceeded at the N3 position of thymidine on the T–T mismatch. Interestingly, the...

Prespacer processing and specific integration in a Type I-A CRISPR system

The CRISPR–Cas system for prokaryotic adaptive immunity provides RNA-mediated protection from viruses and mobile genetic elements. Adaptation is dependent on the Cas1 and Cas2 proteins along with varying accessory proteins. Here we analyse the process in Sulfolobus solfataricus, showing that while Cas1 and Cas2 catalyze spacer integration in vitro, host factors are required for...

Partial bisulfite conversion for unique template sequencing

We introduce a new protocol, mutational sequencing or muSeq, which uses sodium bisulfite to randomly deaminate unmethylated cytosines at a fixed and tunable rate. The muSeq protocol marks each initial template molecule with a unique mutation signature that is present in every copy of the template, and in every fragmented copy of a copy. In the sequenced read data, this signature...

Fluorescently-tagged human eIF3 for single-molecule spectroscopy

Human translation initiation relies on the combined activities of numerous ribosome-associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). The largest factor, eIF3, is an ∼800 kDa multiprotein complex that orchestrates a network of interactions with the small 40S ribosomal subunit, other eIFs, and mRNA, while participating in nearly every step of initiation. How these interactions take...

Capped RNA primer binding to influenza polymerase and implications for the mechanism of cap-binding inhibitors

Influenza polymerase uses short capped primers snatched from nascent Pol II transcripts to initiate transcription of viral mRNAs. Here we describe crystal structures of influenza A and B polymerase bound to a capped primer in a configuration consistent with transcription initiation (’priming state’) and show by functional assays that conserved residues from both the PB2 midlink...

Efficient RNA pseudouridylation by eukaryotic H/ACA ribonucleoproteins requires high affinity binding and correct positioning of guide RNA

H/ACA ribonucleoproteins (H/ACA RNPs) are responsible for introducing many pseudouridines into RNAs, but are also involved in other cellular functions. Utilizing a purified and reconstituted yeast H/ACA RNP system that is active in pseudouridine formation under physiological conditions, we describe here the quantitative characterization of H/ACA RNP formation and function. This...

USP9X controls translation efficiency via deubiquitination of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1

Controlling translation initiation is an efficient way to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, current knowledge regarding regulatory proteins and their modes of controlling translation initiation is still limited. In this study, we employed tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to screen for unknown proteins associated with the...

Improving CRISPR–Cas specificity with chemical modifications in single-guide RNAs

CRISPR systems have emerged as transformative tools for altering genomes in living cells with unprecedented ease, inspiring keen interest in increasing their specificity for perfectly matched targets. We have developed a novel approach for improving specificity by incorporating chemical modifications in guide RNAs (gRNAs) at specific sites in their DNA recognition sequence...

Influence of thermodynamically unfavorable secondary structures on DNA hybridization kinetics

Nucleic acid secondary structure plays an important role in nucleic acid–nucleic acid recognition/hybridization processes, and is also a vital consideration in DNA nanotechnology. Although the influence of stable secondary structures on hybridization kinetics has been characterized, unstable secondary structures, which show positive ΔG° with self-folding, can also form, and their...