Nucleic Acids Research

https://academic.oup.com/nar

List of Papers (Total 5,754)

NRF2 regulates endothelial glycolysis and proliferation with miR-93 and mediates the effects of oxidized phospholipids on endothelial activation

Phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC), are the major components of cell membranes. Their exposure to reactive oxygen species creates oxidized phospholipids, which predispose to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders through endothelial activation and dysfunction. Although the effects of oxidized PAPC...

A coarse-grained model for DNA origami

Modeling tools provide a valuable support for DNA origami design. However, current solutions have limited application for conformational analysis of the designs. In this work we present a tool for a thorough study of DNA origami structure and dynamics. The tool is based on a novel coarse-grained model dedicated to geometry optimization and conformational analysis of DNA origami...

Selective alkylation of T–T mismatched DNA using vinyldiaminotriazine–acridine conjugate

The alkylation of the specific higher-order nucleic acid structures is of great significance in order to control its function and gene expression. In this report, we have described the T–T mismatch selective alkylation with a vinyldiaminotriazine (VDAT)–acridine conjugate. The alkylation selectively proceeded at the N3 position of thymidine on the T–T mismatch. Interestingly, the...

Prespacer processing and specific integration in a Type I-A CRISPR system

The CRISPR–Cas system for prokaryotic adaptive immunity provides RNA-mediated protection from viruses and mobile genetic elements. Adaptation is dependent on the Cas1 and Cas2 proteins along with varying accessory proteins. Here we analyse the process in Sulfolobus solfataricus, showing that while Cas1 and Cas2 catalyze spacer integration in vitro, host factors are required for...

Partial bisulfite conversion for unique template sequencing

We introduce a new protocol, mutational sequencing or muSeq, which uses sodium bisulfite to randomly deaminate unmethylated cytosines at a fixed and tunable rate. The muSeq protocol marks each initial template molecule with a unique mutation signature that is present in every copy of the template, and in every fragmented copy of a copy. In the sequenced read data, this signature...

Fluorescently-tagged human eIF3 for single-molecule spectroscopy

Human translation initiation relies on the combined activities of numerous ribosome-associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). The largest factor, eIF3, is an ∼800 kDa multiprotein complex that orchestrates a network of interactions with the small 40S ribosomal subunit, other eIFs, and mRNA, while participating in nearly every step of initiation. How these interactions take...

Capped RNA primer binding to influenza polymerase and implications for the mechanism of cap-binding inhibitors

Influenza polymerase uses short capped primers snatched from nascent Pol II transcripts to initiate transcription of viral mRNAs. Here we describe crystal structures of influenza A and B polymerase bound to a capped primer in a configuration consistent with transcription initiation (’priming state’) and show by functional assays that conserved residues from both the PB2 midlink...

Efficient RNA pseudouridylation by eukaryotic H/ACA ribonucleoproteins requires high affinity binding and correct positioning of guide RNA

H/ACA ribonucleoproteins (H/ACA RNPs) are responsible for introducing many pseudouridines into RNAs, but are also involved in other cellular functions. Utilizing a purified and reconstituted yeast H/ACA RNP system that is active in pseudouridine formation under physiological conditions, we describe here the quantitative characterization of H/ACA RNP formation and function. This...

Editing activity for eliminating mischarged tRNAs is essential in mammalian mitochondria

Accuracy of protein synthesis is enabled by the selection of amino acids for tRNA charging by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), and further enhanced by the proofreading functions of some of these enzymes for eliminating tRNAs mischarged with noncognate amino acids. Mouse models of editing-defective cytoplasmic alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have previously demonstrated the...

USP9X controls translation efficiency via deubiquitination of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1

Controlling translation initiation is an efficient way to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, current knowledge regarding regulatory proteins and their modes of controlling translation initiation is still limited. In this study, we employed tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to screen for unknown proteins associated with the...

Improving CRISPR–Cas specificity with chemical modifications in single-guide RNAs

CRISPR systems have emerged as transformative tools for altering genomes in living cells with unprecedented ease, inspiring keen interest in increasing their specificity for perfectly matched targets. We have developed a novel approach for improving specificity by incorporating chemical modifications in guide RNAs (gRNAs) at specific sites in their DNA recognition sequence...

Influence of thermodynamically unfavorable secondary structures on DNA hybridization kinetics

Nucleic acid secondary structure plays an important role in nucleic acid–nucleic acid recognition/hybridization processes, and is also a vital consideration in DNA nanotechnology. Although the influence of stable secondary structures on hybridization kinetics has been characterized, unstable secondary structures, which show positive ΔG° with self-folding, can also form, and their...

Single-molecule compaction of megabase-long chromatin molecules by multivalent cations

To gain insight into the conformational properties and compaction of megabase-long chromatin molecules, we reconstituted chromatin from T4 phage DNA (165 kb) and recombinant human histone octamers (HO). The unimolecular compaction, induced by divalent Mg2+ or tetravalent spermine4+ cations, studied by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (FM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS...

Tyrosyl–DNA phosphodiesterases: rescuing the genome from the risks of relaxation

Tyrosyl–DNA Phosphodiesterases 1 (TDP1) and 2 (TDP2) are eukaryotic enzymes that clean-up after aberrant topoisomerase activity. While TDP1 hydrolyzes phosphotyrosyl peptides emanating from trapped topoisomerase I (Top I) from the 3′ DNA ends, topoisomerase 2 (Top II)-induced 5′-phosphotyrosyl residues are processed by TDP2. Even though the canonical functions of TDP1 and TDP2...

Reconstitution of the CstF complex unveils a regulatory role for CstF-50 in recognition of 3′-end processing signals

Cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) is a highly conserved protein complex composed of three subunits that recognizes G/U-rich sequences downstream of the polyadenylation signal of eukaryotic mRNAs. While CstF has been identified over 25 years ago, the architecture and contribution of each subunit to RNA recognition have not been fully understood. In this study, we provide a...