Brain Imaging and Behavior

http://link.springer.com/journal/11682

List of Papers (Total 69)

Cortical thickness abnormalities in trichotillomania: international multi-site analysis

Trichotillomania is a prevalent but often hidden psychiatric condition, characterized by repetitive hair pulling. The aim of this study was to confirm or refute structural brain abnormalities in trichotillomania by pooling all available global data. De-identified MRI scans were pooled by contacting authors of previous studies. Cortical thickness and sub-cortical volumes were ...

Clinical relevance of microhemorrhagic lesions in subacute mild traumatic brain injury

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often performed in patients with persistent complaints after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, the clinical relevance of detected microhemorrhagic lesions is still unclear. In the current study, 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls were included. Post-traumatic complaints were measured at two weeks ...

Brain reward responses to food stimuli among female monozygotic twins discordant for BMI

Obese individuals are characterized by altered brain reward responses to food. Despite the latest discovery of obesity-associated genes, the contribution of environmental and genetic factors to brain reward responsiveness to food remains largely unclear. Sixteen female monozygotic twin pairs with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m2 were selected from the Netherlands Twin ...

Evidence for cognitive resource imbalance in adolescents with narcolepsy

The study investigated brain activity changes during performance of a verbal working memory task in a population of adolescents with narcolepsy. Seventeen narcolepsy patients and twenty healthy controls performed a verbal working memory task during simultaneous fMRI and EEG acquisition. All subjects also underwent MRS to measure GABA and Glutamate concentrations in the medial ...

It’s in the eye of the beholder: selective attention to drink properties during tasting influences brain activation in gustatory and reward regions

Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on ...

Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We here assessed the long-term modifying effects of age-of-first-stimulant treatment ...

Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the cerebellum in schizophrenia

Structural and functional abnormalities of the cerebellum in schizophrenia have been reported. Most previous studies investigating resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) have relied on a priori restrictions on seed regions or specific networks, which may bias observations. In this study, we aimed to elicit the connectivity alterations of the cerebellum in schizophrenia in a ...

Emotion-specific nocebo effects: an fMRI study

The neurobiological mechanisms of nocebos are still poorly understood. Thirty-eight women participated in a ‘smell study’ using functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were presented with an odorless stimulus (distilled water) together with the verbal suggestion that this fluid has an aversive odor which enhances disgust feelings. The nocebo was presented while the participants ...

Relevance of neuroimaging for neurocognitive and behavioral outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury

This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8–14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF+, n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = ...

The GABAergic system in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus modulates context-related extinction learning and renewal in humans

Context-related extinction learning and renewal in humans is mediated by hippocampal and prefrontal regions. Renewal is defined as the reoccurrence of an extinguished response if the contexts present during extinction learning and recall differ. Animal studies implicate hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors in extinction and renewal. However, human studies on GABAergic ...

Midlife managerial experience is linked to late life hippocampal morphology and function

An active cognitive lifestyle has been suggested to have a protective role in the long-term maintenance of cognition. Amongst healthy older adults, more managerial or supervisory experiences in midlife are linked to a slower hippocampal atrophy rate in late life. Yet whether similar links exist in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is not known, nor whether these ...

White matter microstructure of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and its relation to inhibitory control

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is commonly associated with deficits in executive functions such as working memory and inhibitory control. A valid biomarker to describe the pathological basis of these deficits in NF1 is not available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any abnormalities in white matter integrity of the executive function related anterior thalamic ...

Neuropsychiatric symptoms of cholinergic deficiency occur with degradation of the projections from the nucleus basalis of Meynert

This study aims to evaluate the relation between a cluster of neuropsychiatric symptoms related to cholinergic deficiency and degradation of the cortical cholinergic projections which project from the nucleus basalis of Meynert to the cerebral cortex. An atlas of the pathway from the nucleus basalis to the cortex (NbM cortical pathway) was constructed using diffusion tensor imaging ...

Different spatial patterns of brain atrophy and global functional connectivity impairments in major depressive disorder

Alterations in grey matter structure and functional connectivity (FC) are pathological features of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between brain structural and functional impairments in MDD remains uncertain. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) and resting-state global functional ...

Increased brain connectivity and activation after cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized controlled trial

Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). ...

Resting-state subcortical functional connectivity in HIV-infected patients on long-term cART

Despite long-term successful treatment with cART, impairments in cognitive functioning are still being reported in HIV-infected patients. Since changes in cognitive function may be preceded by subtle changes in brain function, neuroimaging techniques, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have become useful tools in assessing HIV-associated ...

Associations between genetic risk, functional brain network organization and neuroticism

Neuroticism and genetic variation in the serotonin-transporter (SLC6A4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene are risk factors for psychopathology. Alterations in the functional integration and segregation of neural circuits have recently been found in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism. The aim of the current study was to investigate how genetic risk factors impact ...

Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric ...

The interaction between 5-HTTLPR and stress exposure influences connectivity of the executive control and default mode brain networks

We recently reported that the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the relation between stress exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) severity. This gene-environment interaction (GxE) has been previously tied to the processing of emotional stimuli, which is increasingly recognized to be a key factor in ADHD-related impairment. The executive ...

Early effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain volumetry and behavior: a combined MRI and histology study in mice

Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on ...

Systemic klotho is associated with KLOTHO variation and predicts intrinsic cortical connectivity in healthy human aging

Cognitive decline is a major biomedical challenge as the global population ages. Elevated levels of the longevity factor klotho suppress aging, enhance cognition, and promote synaptic plasticity and neural resilience against aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related pathogenic proteins. Here, we examined the relationship between human genetic variants of KLOTHO and systemic klotho ...

Cerebral perfusion alterations in type 2 diabetes and its relation to insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction

To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects ...