Nutrition & Metabolism

http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/

List of Papers (Total 811)

Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver

Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally...

Antiobesity potential of Piperonal: promising modulation of body composition, lipid profiles and obesogenic marker expression in HFD-induced obese rats

Black pepper or Piper nigrum is a well-known spice, rich in a variety of bioactive compounds, and widely used in many cuisines across the world. In the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it is used to treat gastric and respiratory ailments. The purpose of this investigation is to study the antihyperlipidemic and antiobesity effects of piperonal in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced...

Baseline type 2 diabetes had a significant association with elevated high sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels in Chinese community-dwelling population: a 5-year prospective analysis

The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) during the 5 years of follow-up, and explore which one of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) is a determinant of this association in Chinese community-dwelling population. This prospective community-based...

Response to discrepancies in publications related to HMB-FA and ATP supplementation

Gentles and Phillips have submitted questions regarding three recent papers investigating ATP, HMB and the combination. The questions pertaining to the homogeneity of subjects’ characteristics between the three different published papers, and why there appears to be differences in the number of subjects in placebo groups across studies. This response addresses each of these...

Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver

Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally...

Response to discrepancies in publications related to HMB-FA and ATP supplementation

Gentles and Phillips have submitted questions regarding three recent papers investigating ATP, HMB and the combination. The questions pertaining to the homogeneity of subjects’ characteristics between the three different published papers, and why there appears to be differences in the number of subjects in placebo groups across studies. This response addresses each of these...

Does the enterolactone (ENL) affect fatty acid transporters and lipid metabolism in liver?

NAFLD as a result of inappropriate diet and obesity, may progress to sever conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus or steatohepatitis, and has recently become a prevalent topic of numerous investigations. Due to its dangerous aftermaths, finding new substances, such as polyphenols and their derivatives, which might reduce liver steatosis is the main target of research into...

Antiobesity potential of Piperonal: promising modulation of body composition, lipid profiles and obesogenic marker expression in HFD-induced obese rats

Black pepper or Piper nigrum is a well-known spice, rich in a variety of bioactive compounds, and widely used in many cuisines across the world. In the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it is used to treat gastric and respiratory ailments. The purpose of this investigation is to study the antihyperlipidemic and antiobesity effects of piperonal in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced...

Baseline type 2 diabetes had a significant association with elevated high sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels in Chinese community-dwelling population: a 5-year prospective analysis

The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) during the 5 years of follow-up, and explore which one of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) is a determinant of this association in Chinese community-dwelling population. This prospective community-based...

An excess dietary vitamin E concentration does not influence Nrf2 signaling in the liver of rats fed either soybean oil or salmon oil

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to stimulate the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), the key regulator of the antioxidant and cytoprotective defense system in the body. The hypothesis underlying this study was that high dietary concentrations of vitamin E suppress Nrf2 activation, and thus could weaken the body’s antioxidative and...

Does the enterolactone (ENL) affect fatty acid transporters and lipid metabolism in liver?

NAFLD as a result of inappropriate diet and obesity, may progress to sever conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus or steatohepatitis, and has recently become a prevalent topic of numerous investigations. Due to its dangerous aftermaths, finding new substances, such as polyphenols and their derivatives, which might reduce liver steatosis is the main target of research into...

Folic acid prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces myocardial fibrosis in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

Folic acid (FA) is an antioxidant that can reduce reactive oxygen species generation and can blunt cardiac dysfunction during ischemia. We hypothesized that FA supplementation prevents cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by obesity. Six-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), normal diet (ND), or an HFD supplemented with folic acid (FAD) for 14 weeks...

Maternal high-fat diet impairs glucose metabolism, β-cell function and proliferation in the second generation of offspring rats

This study aimed to assess the impact of perinatal high-fat (HF) diet in female Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) on glucose metabolism and islet function in their early life of second-generation of offspring (F2). F0 rats were fed with a standard chow (SC) or HF diet for 8 weeks before mating, up to termination of lactation for their first-generation of offspring (F1-SC and F1-HF). F1...

Identification of the principal transcriptional regulators for low-fat and high-fat meal responsive genes in small intestine

High-fat (HF) diet is a well-known cause of obesity. To identify principle transcriptional regulators that could be therapeutic targets of obesity, we investigated transcriptomic modulation in the duodenal mucosa following low-fat (LF) and HF meal ingestion. Whereas one group of mice was sacrificed after fasting, the others were fed ad libitum with LF or HF meal, and sacrificed...

Postprandial low-grade inflammation does not specifically require TLR4 activation in the rat

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor, is suspected to play a key role in the postprandial inflammation that is induced by a high-fat meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). Our objective was to test this hypothesis by using a specific competitive inhibitor of TLR4 (INH) vs vehicle (VEH) administered immediately before a high-SFA meal in rats. First, in a cross...

Serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is one of the best markers of insulin resistance in the Chinese population

The alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ratio is reportedly associated with insulin resistance (IR). However, few studies have explored the relationship between the ALT/AST ratio and IR in the Chinese population. Here, we aimed to explore whether the ALT/AST ratio is associated and, if so, to what extent, with IR in the Chinese population as...

Sex-specific association between fibroblast growth factor 21 and type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study in Singapore Chinese men and women

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is mainly secreted by liver and has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Some prospective studies have shown a positive association between FGF-21 and diabetes risk. However, no study has examined whether the association differed by sex, which has been reported between FGF-21 and atherosclerosis. Therefore, we...

Effect of a short-term dietary supplementation with phytosterols, red yeast rice or both on lipid pattern in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects: a three-arm, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

Phytosterols and red yeast rice are largely studied cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals, respectively inhibiting the bowel absorption and liver synthesis of cholesterol. Our aim was to test the effect on lipid profile of phytosterols, red yeast rice and their association. We performed a three parallel arms, double blind, clinical trial randomizing 90 moderately...