Nutrition & Metabolism

http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/

List of Papers (Total 809)

Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver

Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. ...

Antiobesity potential of Piperonal: promising modulation of body composition, lipid profiles and obesogenic marker expression in HFD-induced obese rats

Black pepper or Piper nigrum is a well-known spice, rich in a variety of bioactive compounds, and widely used in many cuisines across the world. In the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it is used to treat gastric and respiratory ailments. The purpose of this investigation is to study the antihyperlipidemic and antiobesity effects of piperonal in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced ...

Baseline type 2 diabetes had a significant association with elevated high sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels in Chinese community-dwelling population: a 5-year prospective analysis

The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) during the 5 years of follow-up, and explore which one of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) is a determinant of this association in Chinese community-dwelling population. This prospective community-based analysis ...

Response to discrepancies in publications related to HMB-FA and ATP supplementation

Gentles and Phillips have submitted questions regarding three recent papers investigating ATP, HMB and the combination. The questions pertaining to the homogeneity of subjects’ characteristics between the three different published papers, and why there appears to be differences in the number of subjects in placebo groups across studies. This response addresses each of these issues ...

Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver

Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. ...

Response to discrepancies in publications related to HMB-FA and ATP supplementation

Gentles and Phillips have submitted questions regarding three recent papers investigating ATP, HMB and the combination. The questions pertaining to the homogeneity of subjects’ characteristics between the three different published papers, and why there appears to be differences in the number of subjects in placebo groups across studies. This response addresses each of these issues ...

Does the enterolactone (ENL) affect fatty acid transporters and lipid metabolism in liver?

NAFLD as a result of inappropriate diet and obesity, may progress to sever conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus or steatohepatitis, and has recently become a prevalent topic of numerous investigations. Due to its dangerous aftermaths, finding new substances, such as polyphenols and their derivatives, which might reduce liver steatosis is the main target of research into ...

Baseline type 2 diabetes had a significant association with elevated high sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels in Chinese community-dwelling population: a 5-year prospective analysis

The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) during the 5 years of follow-up, and explore which one of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) is a determinant of this association in Chinese community-dwelling population. This prospective community-based analysis ...

Does the enterolactone (ENL) affect fatty acid transporters and lipid metabolism in liver?

NAFLD as a result of inappropriate diet and obesity, may progress to sever conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus or steatohepatitis, and has recently become a prevalent topic of numerous investigations. Due to its dangerous aftermaths, finding new substances, such as polyphenols and their derivatives, which might reduce liver steatosis is the main target of research into ...

Folic acid prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces myocardial fibrosis in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

Folic acid (FA) is an antioxidant that can reduce reactive oxygen species generation and can blunt cardiac dysfunction during ischemia. We hypothesized that FA supplementation prevents cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by obesity. Six-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), normal diet (ND), or an HFD supplemented with folic acid (FAD) for 14 weeks. ...

Maternal high-fat diet impairs glucose metabolism, β-cell function and proliferation in the second generation of offspring rats

This study aimed to assess the impact of perinatal high-fat (HF) diet in female Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) on glucose metabolism and islet function in their early life of second-generation of offspring (F2). F0 rats were fed with a standard chow (SC) or HF diet for 8 weeks before mating, up to termination of lactation for their first-generation of offspring (F1-SC and F1-HF). F1 ...

Identification of the principal transcriptional regulators for low-fat and high-fat meal responsive genes in small intestine

High-fat (HF) diet is a well-known cause of obesity. To identify principle transcriptional regulators that could be therapeutic targets of obesity, we investigated transcriptomic modulation in the duodenal mucosa following low-fat (LF) and HF meal ingestion. Whereas one group of mice was sacrificed after fasting, the others were fed ad libitum with LF or HF meal, and sacrificed 30 ...

Postprandial low-grade inflammation does not specifically require TLR4 activation in the rat

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor, is suspected to play a key role in the postprandial inflammation that is induced by a high-fat meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). Our objective was to test this hypothesis by using a specific competitive inhibitor of TLR4 (INH) vs vehicle (VEH) administered immediately before a high-SFA meal in rats. First, in a ...

Serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is one of the best markers of insulin resistance in the Chinese population

The alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ratio is reportedly associated with insulin resistance (IR). However, few studies have explored the relationship between the ALT/AST ratio and IR in the Chinese population. Here, we aimed to explore whether the ALT/AST ratio is associated and, if so, to what extent, with IR in the Chinese population as categorized ...

Sex-specific association between fibroblast growth factor 21 and type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study in Singapore Chinese men and women

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is mainly secreted by liver and has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Some prospective studies have shown a positive association between FGF-21 and diabetes risk. However, no study has examined whether the association differed by sex, which has been reported between FGF-21 and atherosclerosis. Therefore, we ...

Effect of a short-term dietary supplementation with phytosterols, red yeast rice or both on lipid pattern in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects: a three-arm, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

Phytosterols and red yeast rice are largely studied cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals, respectively inhibiting the bowel absorption and liver synthesis of cholesterol. Our aim was to test the effect on lipid profile of phytosterols, red yeast rice and their association. We performed a three parallel arms, double blind, clinical trial randomizing 90 moderately hypercholesterolemic ...

Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Although the regular consumption of resveratrol has been known to improve glucose homeostasis and reverse insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the reported results are inconsistent. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of resveratrol on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity among patients with T2DM. We searched for relevant articles published until June 2017 on ...

Branched-chain amino acid supplementation restores reduced insulinotropic activity of a low-protein diet through the vagus nerve in rats

Previously, we reported that a low-protein diet significantly reduced insulin secretion in response to feeding within 1 h in rats, suggesting that the insulinotropic effect of dietary protein plays an important role in maintaining normal insulin release. The current study aimed to elucidate whether deficiency of certain amino acids could diminish the insulinotropic activity and to ...

Effects of a liquid high-fat meal on postprandial lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity

Postprandial lipemia and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of accelerated atherosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipid metabolism after the ingestion of a liquid high-fat meal in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity, and determine if the PvuII polymorphisms of LPL influence their postprandial lipid responses. ...

Milk disrupts p53 and DNMT1, the guardians of the genome: implications for acne vulgaris and prostate cancer

There is accumulating evidence that milk shapes the postnatal metabolic environment of the newborn infant. Based on translational research, this perspective article provides a novel mechanistic link between milk intake and milk miRNA-regulated gene expression of the transcription factor p53 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), two guardians of the human genome, that control ...

Serum metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease development or reversion; a targeted metabolomic approach within the PREDIMED trial

Limited prospective studies have examined changes in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) related serum-metabolites and none the effects of NAFLD-reversion. We aimed to evaluate whether perturbations in metabolites indicate predisposition to NAFLD development and to assess the effects of NAFLD reversion on metabolite profiles. A targeted liquid-chromatography tandem ...

Phenylketonuria patients’ and their parents’ knowledge and attitudes to the daily diet - multi-centre study

The aim of the study was to assess both patients’ and their parents’ knowledge of phenylketonuria (PKU) treatment and compliance with PKU diet. The study included 173 PKU patients aged 10–19 and 110 parents of PKU children who were enrolled in the study on the basis of questionnaire data. The study also included 45 patients aged ≥20. Our study demonstrated that only 45% (n = 74) of ...

Recombinant SFRP5 protein significantly alleviated intrahepatic inflammation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is an anti-inflammatory adipokine modulating metabolism dysfunction. This study aims to observe the effect of recombinant SFRP5 protein on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We set up a prokaryotic expression system and purified the recombinant SFRP5 protein. Recombinant SFRP5 protein was further identified by SDS-PAGE, western blot, ...