Neuropsychopharmacology

http://www.nature.com/npp

List of Papers (Total 638)

The olfactory bulb is a source of high-frequency oscillations (130–180 Hz) associated with a subanesthetic dose of ketamine in rodents

High-frequency neuronal population oscillations (HFO, 130–180 Hz) are robustly potentiated by subanesthetic doses of ketamine. This frequency band has been recorded in functionally and neuroanatomically diverse cortical and subcortical regions, notably ventral striatal areas. However, the locus of generation remains largely unknown. There is compelling evidence that olfactory...

Profiling changes in cortical astroglial cells following chronic stress

Recent studies have suggested that cortical astroglia play an important role in depressive-like behaviors. Potential astroglial contributions have been proposed based on their known neuroplastic functions, such as glutamate recycling and synaptic plasticity. However, the specific mechanisms by which astroglial cells may contribute or protect against a depressive phenotype remain...

NPTX2 is a key component in the regulation of anxiety

Anxiety disorders significantly impair quality of life. However, limited knowledge of the underlying mechanisms impedes the development of effective therapeutics. Previous studies have suggested that the expression of the Nptx2 gene is associated with anxiety, but the neurobiological processes underlying this association remain unclear. We generated multiple mouse models with...

Chronic cannabis promotes pro-hallucinogenic signaling of 5-HT2A receptors through Akt/mTOR pathway

Long-term use of potent cannabis during adolescence increases the risk of developing schizophrenia later in life, but to date, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several findings suggest that the functional selectivity of serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) through inhibitory G-proteins is involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for psychotic symptoms. Moreover, this...

Cortical inhibitory markers of lifetime suicidal behavior in depressed adolescents

Although suicide is the second-leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide, little progress has been made in developing reliable biological markers of suicide risk and suicidal behavior. Converging evidence suggests that excitatory and inhibitory cortical processes mediated by the neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are dysregulated in...

Multimodal Investigation of Network Level Effects Using Intrinsic Functional Connectivity, Anatomical Covariance, and Structure-to-Function Correlations in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder

Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied tensor...

US Epidemiology of Cannabis Use and Associated Problems

This review provides an overview of the changing US epidemiology of cannabis use and associated problems. Adults and adolescents increasingly view cannabis as harmless, and some can use cannabis without harm. However, potential problems include harms from prenatal exposure and unintentional childhood exposure; decline in educational or occupational functioning after early...

A Primer on Foraging and the Explore/Exploit Trade-Off for Psychiatry Research

Foraging is a fundamental behavior, and many types of animals appear to have solved foraging problems using a shared set of mechanisms. Perhaps the most common foraging problem is the choice between exploiting a familiar option for a known reward and exploring unfamiliar options for unknown rewards—the so-called explore/exploit trade-off. This trade-off has been studied...

Maternal Immune Activation Causes Behavioral Impairments and Altered Cerebellar Cytokine and Synaptic Protein Expression

Emerging epidemiology studies indicate that maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from inflammatory stimuli such as viral or bacterial infections during pregnancy serves as a risk factor for multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although alterations in the cortex and hippocampus of MIA offspring have been described, less...

Incubation of Methamphetamine but not Heroin Craving After Voluntary Abstinence in Male and Female Rats

We recently introduced an animal model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence in male rats. Here we studied the generality of this phenomenon to (1) female rats, and (2) male and female rats with a history of heroin self-administration. We first trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets for 6 days (6 h per day) for either...

Effects of a Serotonin 2C Agonist and a 2A Antagonist on Actigraphy-Based Sleep Parameters Disrupted by Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rhesus Monkeys

Sleep disorders and substance abuse are highly comorbid and we have previously shown that methamphetamine self-administration significantly disrupts activity-based sleep parameters in rhesus monkeys. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effectiveness of any pharmacological intervention to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on nighttime activity under...

High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Blocks Compulsive-Like Re-Escalation of Heroin Taking in Rats

Opioid addiction, including addiction to heroin, has markedly increased in the past decade. The cost and pervasiveness of heroin addiction, including resistance to recovery from addiction, provide a compelling basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Deep brain stimulation may represent a viable alternative strategy for the treatment of intractable heroin addiction...

Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this shift is still unclear, previous evidence in rodents points towards cortisol...

Pharmacological Activators of the NR4A Nuclear Receptors Enhance LTP in a CREB/CBP-Dependent Manner

Nr4a nuclear receptors contribute to long-term memory formation and are required for long-term memory enhancement by a class of broad-acting drugs known as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes and identifying ways to increase their activity may provide novel therapeutic approaches for ameliorating cognitive...

Ethanol-Sensitive Pacemaker Neurons in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus

Although ethanol is one of the most widely used drugs, we still lack a full understanding of which neuronal subtypes are affected by this drug. Pacemaker neurons exert powerful control over brain circuit function, but little is known about ethanol effects on these types of neurons. Neurons in the external globus pallidus (GPe) generate pacemaker activity that controls basal...

Endogenous Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius is Required for Food Intake Control

Alhough the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system is critical to energy balance control and is a target for obesity pharmacotherapies, the receptor-population-mediating effects of endogenous GLP-1 signaling are not fully understood. To address this, we developed a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV-GLP-1R) that utilizes short hairpin RNA to chronically knock down GLP-1 receptors...

Towards an Immunophenotype of Schizophrenia: Progress, Potential Mechanisms, and Future Directions

The evidence to date, coupled with advances in immunology and genetics has afforded the field an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the hypothesis that a subset of patients with schizophrenia may manifest an immunophenotype, toward new potential diagnostics and therapeutics to reduce risk, alleviate symptoms, and improve quality of life in both at-risk populations and...

Ketamine Treatment and Global Brain Connectivity in Major Depression

Capitalizing on recent advances in resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) and the distinctive paradigm of rapid mood normalization following ketamine treatment, the current study investigated intrinsic brain networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) during a depressive episode and following treatment with ketamine. Medication-free patients...

Microglia Priming with Aging and Stress

The population of aged individuals is increasing worldwide and this has significant health and socio-economic implications. Clinical and experimental studies on aging have discovered myriad changes in the brain, including reduced neurogenesis, increased synaptic aberrations, higher metabolic stress, and augmented inflammation. In rodent models of aging, these alterations are...

Attenuation of Frontostriatal Connectivity During Reward Processing Predicts Response to Psychotherapy in Major Depressive Disorder

There are few reliable predictors of response to antidepressant treatments. In the present investigation, we examined pretreatment functional brain connectivity during reward processing as a potential predictor of response to Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), a validated psychotherapy that promotes engagement with rewarding stimuli and reduces avoidance...

Sex Differences in Context Fear Generalization and Recruitment of Hippocampus and Amygdala during Retrieval

Anxiety disorders are commonly associated with increased generalization of fear from a stress- or trauma-associated environment to a neutral context or environment. Differences in context-associated memory in males and females may contribute to increased susceptibility to anxiety disorders in women. Here we examined sex differences in context fear generalization and its neural...