Clinical Infectious Diseases

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 14,146)

Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India

Background. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention.

Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Fecal transplantation (FT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but its true effectiveness remains unknown. We compared 14 days of oral vancomycin followed by a single FT by enema with oral vancomycin taper (standard of care) in adult patients experiencing acute recurrence of CDI.

Characteristics and Outcomes of Pediatric Patients With Ebola Virus Disease Admitted to Treatment Units in Liberia and Sierra Leone: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Background. The clinical and virologic characteristics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in children have not been thoroughly documented.

Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Background. Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain.

Fixed-Dose Artesunate–Amodiaquine Combination vs Chloroquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Blood Stage P. vivax Infection in the Brazilian Amazon: An Open-Label Randomized, Controlled Trial

Background. Despite increasing evidence of the development of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance, there have been no trials comparing its efficacy with that of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in Latin America.

Simultaneous Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris on 3 Continents Confirmed by Whole-Genome Sequencing and Epidemiological Analyses

Background. Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes invasive infections, was first described in 2009 in Japan and has since been reported from several countries.

Persistent, Albeit Reduced, Chronic Inflammation in Persons Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute HIV Infection

Background. Serious non-AIDS events cause substantial disease and death despite human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation cascade activation, and fibrosis predict these end-organ events. We aimed to determine whether ART initiation during acute HIV infection would attenuate changes in these biomarker ...

Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients on Concomitant Vancomycin and Piperacillin–Tazobactam Compared to Those on Vancomycin and Cefepime

Background. Recent evidence suggests that among patients receiving vancomycin, receipt of concomitant piperacillin–tazobactam increases the risk of nephrotoxicity. Well-controlled, adequately powered studies comparing rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients receiving vancomycin + piperacillin–tazobactam (VPT) compared to similar patients receiving vancomycin + cefepime ...

Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Background. Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain.

Hepatitis C Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis in the Healthcare Worker: Why Direct-Acting Antivirals Don't Change a Thing

Currently, 380 000–400 000 occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or hepatitis B virus exposures includes postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions ...

Coinfection With Zika and Dengue-2 Viruses in a Traveler Returning From Haiti, 2016: Clinical Presentation and Genetic Analysis

Zika virus and dengue virus serotype 2 were isolated from a patient with travel to Haiti who developed fever, rash, arthralgias, and conjunctivitis. The infecting Zika virus was related to Venezuelan and Brazilian strains but evolved along a lineage originating from strains isolated in 2014 in the same region of Haiti.

Effectiveness of Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination on Pertussis Severity in Infants

Background. All US women are recommended to receive a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine at 27–36 weeks gestation during each pregnancy to reduce the risk of pertussis to their infants. The impact of this strategy on severity of disease among infected infants has not been evaluated. Methods. We use a retrospective cohort study design evaluating whether ...

Effectiveness of Prenatal Versus Postpartum Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in Preventing Infant Pertussis

Background. Most severe and fatal cases of pertussis occur in infants <8 weeks of age, before initiation of the primary pertussis vaccine series. Women are recommended to receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine at the start of the third trimester of each pregnancy to optimize transplacental transfer of antibodies to the fetus. This recommendation was ...

Pre-referral Rectal Artesunate Treatment by Community-Based Treatment Providers in Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Tanzania, and Uganda (Study 18): A Cluster-Randomized Trial

Background. If malaria patients who cannot be treated orally are several hours from facilities for injections, rectal artesunate prior to hospital referral can prevent death and disability. The goal is to reduce death from malaria by having rectal artesunate treatment available and used. How best to do this remains unknown. Methods. Villages remote from a health facility were ...

Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of ...

Quantifying and Valuing Community Health Worker Time in Improving Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment

Background. Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a community who are chosen by their communities as first-line, volunteer health workers. The time they spend providing healthcare and the value of this time are often not evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the time CHWs spent on providing healthcare before and during the implementation of an integrated program of diagnosis ...

Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Malaria Microscopy for Guiding Malaria Treatment of Uncomplicated Fevers in Nigeria and Prereferral Cases in 3 African Countries

Background. The World Health Organization recommends that malaria treatment be based on demonstration of the infecting Plasmodium parasite specie. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are recommended at community points of care because they are accurate and rapid. We report on parasitological results in a malaria study in selected rural communities in 3 African countries. Methods. ...

Compliance With Referral Advice After Treatment With Prereferral Rectal Artesunate: A Study in 3 Sub-Saharan African Countries

Background. Children aged <5 years were enrolled in a large study in 3 countries of sub-Saharan Africa because they had danger signs preventing them from being able to take oral medications. We examined compliance and factors associated with compliance with referral advice for those who were treated with rectal artesunate. Methods. Patient demographic data, speed of accessing ...

Compliance With Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Testing by Community Health Workers in 3 Malaria-Endemic Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa: An Observational Study

Background. The World Health Organization recommends that all malaria management be based on parasitological identification. We monitored performance of trained community health workers (CHWs) in adhering to this recommendation to restrict artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to positive rapid diagnostic test (RDT)–confirmed cases in children in 3 malaria-endemic ...

Motivation of Community Health Workers in Diagnosing, Treating, and Referring Sick Young Children in a Multicountry Study

Background. Community health workers (CHWs) are an important element of care provision for a wide range of conditions, but their turnover rate is high. Many studies have been conducted on health workers’ motivation, focusing on formal sector staff but not CHWs. Although CHWs are easy to recruit, motivating and retaining them for service delivery is difficult. This article ...

Training Community Health Workers to Manage Uncomplicated and Severe Malaria: Experience From 3 Rural Malaria-Endemic Areas in Sub-Saharan Africa

Background. Use of community health workers (CHWs) to increase access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria is recommended by the World Health Organization. The present article reports on training and performance of CHWs in applying these recommendations. Methods. Two hundred seventy-nine CHWs were trained for 3–5 days in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda, and 19 were certified to ...