LIPICS - Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics

http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/institut_lipics.php

List of Papers (Total 192)

String Periods in the Order-Preserving Model

The order-preserving model (op-model, in short) was introduced quite recently but has already attracted significant attention because of its applications in data analysis. We introduce several types of periods in this setting (op-periods). Then we give algorithms to compute these periods in time O(n), O(n log log n), O(n log^2 log n/log log log n), O(n log n) depending on the...

Optimal Dislocation with Persistent Errors in Subquadratic Time

We study the problem of sorting N elements in presence of persistent errors in comparisons: In this classical model, each comparison between two elements is wrong independently with some probability p, but repeating the same comparison gives always the same result. The best known algorithms for this problem have running time O(N^2) and achieve an optimal maximum dislocation of O...

A Type Theory for Probabilistic and Bayesian Reasoning

This paper introduces a novel type theory and logic for probabilistic reasoning. Its logic is quantitative, with fuzzy predicates. It includes normalisation and conditioning of states. This conditioning uses a key aspect that distinguishes our probabilistic type theory from quantum type theory, namely the bijective correspondence between predicates and side-effect free actions...

Matrix Estimation, Latent Variable Model and Collaborative Filtering

Estimating a matrix based on partial, noisy observations is prevalent in variety of modern applications with recommendation system being a prototypical example. The non-parametric latent variable model provides canonical representation for such matrix data when the underlying distribution satisfies ``exchangeability'' with graphons and stochastic block model being recent examples...

Making Asynchronous Distributed Computations Robust to Channel Noise

We consider the problem of making distributed computations robust to noise, in particular to worst-case (adversarial) corruptions of messages. We give a general distributed interactive coding scheme which simulates any asynchronous distributed protocol while tolerating a maximal corruption level of \Theta(1/n)-fraction of all messages. Our noise tolerance is optimal and is...

Alternating Minimization, Scaling Algorithms, and the Null-Cone Problem from Invariant Theory

Alternating minimization heuristics seek to solve a (difficult) global optimization task through iteratively solving a sequence of (much easier) local optimization tasks on different parts (or blocks) of the input parameters. While popular and widely applicable, very few examples of this heuristic are rigorously shown to converge to optimality, and even fewer to do so efficiently...

Stabbing Planes

We introduce and develop a new semi-algebraic proof system, called Stabbing Planes that is in the style of DPLL-based modern SAT solvers. As with DPLL, there is only one rule: the current polytope can be subdivided by branching on an inequality and its "integer negation." That is, we can (nondeterministically choose) a hyperplane a x >= b with integer coefficients, which...

A New Balanced Subdivision of a Simple Polygon for Time-Space Trade-off Algorithms

We are given a read-only memory for input and a write-only stream for output. For a positive integer parameter s, an s-workspace algorithm is an algorithm using only O(s) words of workspace in addition to the memory for input. In this paper, we present an O(n^2/s)-time s-workspace algorithm for subdividing a simple polygon into O(\min\{n/s,s\}) subpolygons of complexity O(\max\{n...

Satisfiability Algorithm for Syntactic Read-$k$-times Branching Programs

The satisfiability of a given branching program is to determine whether there exists a consistent path from the root to 1-sink. In a syntactic read-k-times branching program, each variable appears at most k times in any path from the root to a sink. We provide a satisfiability algorithm for syntactic read-k-times branching programs with n variables and m edges that runs in time O...

Maximizing the Strong Triadic Closure in Split Graphs and Proper Interval Graphs

In social networks the Strong Triadic Closure is an assignment of the edges with strong or weak labels such that any two vertices that have a common neighbor with a strong edge are adjacent. The problem of maximizing the number of strong edges that satisfy the strong triadic closure was recently shown to be NP-complete for general graphs. Here we initiate the study of graph...

On Maximal Cliques with Connectivity Constraints in Directed Graphs

Finding communities in the form of cohesive subgraphs is a fundamental problem in network analysis. In domains that model networks as undirected graphs, communities are generally associated with dense subgraphs, and many community models have been proposed. Maximal cliques are arguably the most widely studied among such models, with early works dating back to the '60s, and a...

Walrasian Pricing in Multi-Unit Auctions

Multi-unit auctions are a paradigmatic model, where a seller brings multiple units of a good, while several buyers bring monetary endowments. It is well known that Walrasian equilibria do not always exist in this model, however compelling relaxations such as Walrasian envy-free pricing do. In this paper we design an optimal envy-free mechanism for multi-unit auctions with budgets...

Being Even Slightly Shallow Makes Life Hard

We study the computational complexity of identifying dense substructures, namely r/2-shallow topological minors and r-subdivisions. Of particular interest is the case r = 1, when these substructures correspond to very localized relaxations of subgraphs. Since Densest Subgraph can be solved in polynomial time, we ask whether these slight relaxations also admit efficient algorithms...

Undecidable Problems for Probabilistic Network Programming

The software-defined networking language NetKAT is able to verify many useful properties of networks automatically via a PSPACE decision procedure for program equality. However, for its probabilistic extension ProbNetKAT, no such decision procedure is known. We show that several potentially useful properties of ProbNetKAT are in fact undecidable, including emptiness of support...

The Equivalence, Unambiguity and Sequentiality Problems of Finitely Ambiguous Max-Plus Tree Automata are Decidable

We show that the equivalence, unambiguity and sequentiality problems are decidable for finitely ambiguous max-plus tree automata.

The Shortest Identities for Max-Plus Automata with Two States

Max-plus automata are quantitative extensions of automata designed to associate an integer with every non-empty word. A pair of distinct words is said to be an identity for a class of max-plus automata if each of the automata in the class computes the same value on the two words. We give the shortest identities holding for the class of max-plus automata with two states. For this...

Model Checking and Validity in Propositional and Modal Inclusion Logics

Propositional and modal inclusion logic are formalisms that belong to the family of logics based on team semantics. This article investigates the model checking and validity problems of these logics. We identify complexity bounds for both problems, covering both lax and strict team semantics. By doing so, we come close to finalising the programme that ultimately aims to classify...

Justified Sequences in String Diagrams: a Comparison Between Two Approaches to Concurrent Game Semantics

Recent developments of game semantics have given rise to new models of concurrent languages. On the one hand, an approach based on string diagrams has given models of CCS and the pi-calculus, and on the other hand, Tsukada and Ong have designed a games model for a non-deterministic lambda-calculus. There is an obvious, shallow relationship between the two approaches, as they both...

Recovering Shared Objects Without Stable Storage

This paper considers the problem of building fault-tolerant shared objects when processes can crash and recover but lose their persistent state on recovery. This Diskless Crash-Recovery (DCR) model matches the way many long-lived systems are built. We show that it presents new challenges, as operations that are recorded at a quorum may not persist after some of the processes in...

CTL with Finitely Bounded Semantics

We consider a variation of the branching time logic CTL with non-standard, "finitely bounded" semantics (FBS). FBS is naturally defined as game-theoretic semantics where the proponent of truth of an eventuality must commit to a time limit (number of transition steps) within which the formula should become true on all (resp. some) paths starting from the state where the formula is...

Improved Guarantees for Vertex Sparsification in Planar Graphs

Graph Sparsification aims at compressing large graphs into smaller ones while (approximately) preserving important characteristics of the input graph. In this work we study Vertex Sparsifiers, i.e., sparsifiers whose goal is to reduce the number of vertices. Given a weighted graph G=(V,E), and a terminal set K with |K|=k, a quality-q vertex cut sparsifier of G is a graph H with K...

Stability and Recovery for Independence Systems

Two genres of heuristics that are frequently reported to perform much better on "real-world" instances than in the worst case are greedy algorithms and local search algorithms. In this paper, we systematically study these two types of algorithms for the problem of maximizing a monotone submodular set function subject to downward-closed feasibility constraints. We consider...

Tight Bounds for Online Coloring of Basic Graph Classes

We resolve a number of long-standing open problems in online graph coloring. More specifically, we develop tight lower bounds on the performance of online algorithms for fundamental graph classes. An important contribution is that our bounds also hold for randomized online algorithms, for which hardly any results were known. Technically, we construct lower bounds for chordal...

A Qualitative Spatial Descriptor of Group-Robot Interactions

The problem of finding a suitable qualitative representation for robots to reason about activity spaces where they carry out tasks such as leading or interacting with a group of people is tackled in this paper. For that, a Qualitative Spatial model for Group Robot Interaction (QS-GRI) is proposed to define Kendon�s F-formations [Kendon, 2010] depending on: (i) the relative...

Removing Cycles from Proofs

If we track atom occurrences in classical propositional proofs in deep inference, we see that they can form cyclic structures between cuts and identity steps. These cycles are an obstacle to a very natural form of normalisation, that simply unfolds all the contractions in a proof. This mechanism, which we call �decomposition�, has many points of contact with explicit...