In this paper, we analyze and compare three of the many algebraic structures that have been used for modeling dependent type theories: categories with families, split type-categories, and representable maps of presheaves. We study these in the setting of univalent foundations, where the relationships between them can be stated more transparently. Specifically, we construct maps...

Finding central nodes is a fundamental problem in network analysis. Betweenness centrality is a well-known measure which quantifies the importance of a node based on the fraction of shortest paths going though it. Due to the dynamic nature of many today�s networks, algorithms that quickly update centrality scores have become a necessity. For betweenness, several dynamic...

The fundamental problem of distance geometry consists in finding a realization of a given weighted graph in a Euclidean space of given dimension, in such a way that vertices are realized as points and edges as straight segments having the same lengths as their given weights. This problem arises in structural proteomics, wireless sensor networks, and clock synchronization...

In insertion-only streaming, one sees a sequence of indices a_1, a_2, ..., a_m in [n]. The stream defines a sequence of m frequency vectors x(1), ..., x(m) each in R^n, where x(t) is the frequency vector of items after seeing the first t indices in the stream. Much work in the streaming literature focuses on estimating some function f(x(m)). Many applications though require...

In this paper, we show exponential lower bounds for the class of homogeneous depth-5 circuits over all small finite fields. More formally, we show that there is an explicit family {P_d} of polynomials in VNP, where P_d is of degree d in n = d^{O(1)} variables, such that over all finite fields GF(q), any homogeneous depth-5 circuit which computes P_d must have size at least exp...

Questions of noise stability play an important role in hardness of approximation in computer science as well as in the theory of voting. In many applications, the goal is to find an optimizer of noise stability among all possible partitions of R^n for n >= 1 to k parts with given Gaussian measures mu_1, ..., mu_k. We call a partition epsilon-optimal, if its noise stability is...

We revisit fundamental problems in undirected and directed graphs, such as the problems of computing spanning trees, shortest paths, steiner trees, and spanning arborescences of minimum cost. We assume that there are d different cost functions associated with the edges of the input graph and seek for solutions to the resulting multidimensional graph problems so that the p-norm of...

The Sensitivity Conjecture and the Log-rank Conjecture are among the most important and challenging problems in concrete complexity. Incidentally, the Sensitivity Conjecture is known to hold for monotone functions, and so is the Log-rank Conjecture for f(x and y) and f(x xor y) with monotone functions f, where and and xor are bit-wise AND and XOR , respectively. In this paper, we...

We introduce a new dynamic data structure for maintaining the strongly connected components (SCCs) of a directed graph (digraph) under edge deletions, so as to answer a rich repertoire of connectivity queries. Our main technical contribution is a decremental data structure that supports sensitivity queries of the form "are u and v strongly connected in the graph G \ w?", for any...

Given two positions i and j in a string T of length N, a longest common extension (LCE) query asks for the length of the longest common prefix between suffixes beginning at i and j. A compressed LCE data structure stores T in a compressed form while supporting fast LCE queries. In this article we show that the recompression technique is a powerful tool for compressed LCE data...

The principle of least authority states that each component of the system should be given authority to access only the information and resources that it needs for its operation. This principle is fundamental to the secure design of software systems, as it helps to limit an application's attack surface and to isolate vulnerabilities and faults. Unfortunately, current programming...

Let P be a finite set of points in the plane in general position, that is, no three points of P are on a common line. We say that a set H of five points from P is a 5-hole in P if H is the vertex set of a convex 5-gon containing no other points of P. For a positive integer n, let h_5(n) be the minimum number of 5-holes among all sets of n points in the plane in general position...

Functionality of software systems has exploded in part because of advances in programming-language support for packaging reusable functionality as libraries. Developers benefit from the uniformity that comes of exposing many interfaces in the same language, as opposed to stringing together hodgepodges of command-line tools. Domain-specific languages may be viewed as an evolution...

Communication demands are usually the leading factor that defines the efficiency of operations on a read/write shared memory emulation in the message-passing environment. In the quest for minimizing the communication demands, the algorithms proposed either require restrictions in the system or incur high computation demands. As a result, such solutions may be not suitable to be...

In this paper we present two analytical frameworks for calculating the performance of lock-free data structures. Lock-free data structures are based on retry loops and are called by application-specific routines. In contrast to previous work, we consider in this paper lock-free data structures in dynamic environments. The size of each of the retry loops, and the size of the...

The happened-before model (or the poset model) has been widely used for modeling the computations (execution traces) of parallel programs and detecting predicates (user-specified conditions). This model captures potential causality as well as locking constraints among the executed events of computations using Lamport's happened-before relation. The detection of a predicate in a...

We deal with the problem of maintaining a shortest-path tree rooted at some process r in a network that may be disconnected after topological changes. The goal is then to maintain a shortest-path tree rooted at r in its connected component, V_r, and make all processes of other components detecting that r is not part of their connected component. We propose, in the composite...

Many XML documents are data-centric and do not make use of the inherent document order. Can we provide stronger compression for such documents through giving up order? We first consider compression via minimal dags (directed acyclic graphs) and study the worst case ratio of the size of the ordered dag divided by the size of the unordered dag, where the worst case is taken for all...

The number of variables used by a first-order query is a fundamental measure which has been studied in numerous contexts, and which is known to be highly relevant to the task of query evaluation. In this article, we study this measure in the context of existential positive queries. Building on previous work, we present a combinatorial quantity defined on existential positive...

The pointer function of Goos, Pitassi and Watson and its variants have recently been used to prove separation results among various measures of complexity such as deterministic, randomized and quantum query complexity, exact and approximate polynomial degree, etc. In particular, Ambainis et al. (STOC 2016) obtained the widest possible (quadratic) separations between deterministic...

We consider the problem of finding a shortcut connecting two vertices of a graph that minimizes the diameter of the resulting graph. We present an O(n^2 log^3 n)-time algorithm using linear space for the case that the input graph is a tree consisting of n vertices. Additionally, we present an O(n^2 log^3 n)-time algorithm using linear space for a continuous version of this problem.

One of the important tasks in the analysis of spatio-temporal data collected from moving entities is to find a group: a set of entities that travel together for a sufficiently long period of time. Buchin et al. [JoCG, 2015] introduce a formal definition of groups, analyze its mathematical structure, and present efficient algorithms for computing all maximal groups in a given set...

In a standard f-connectivity network design problem, we are given an undirected graph G = (V, E), a cut-requirement function f : 2^V to N, and non-negative costs c(e) for all e in E. We are then asked to find a minimum-cost vector x in N^E such that x(delta(S)) geq f (S) for all S subseteq V. We focus on the class of such problems where f is a proper function. This encodes many...

We examine the complexity of the online Dictionary Matching with One Gap Problem (DMOG) which is the following. Preprocess a dictionary D of d patterns, where each pattern contains a special gap symbol that can match any string, so that given a text that arrives online, a character at a time, we can report all of the patterns from D that are suffixes of the text that has arrived...

Motivated by the increasing popularity of electric vehicles (EV) and a lack of charging stations in the road network, we study the shortest path hitting set (SPHS) problem. Roughly speaking, given an input graph G, the goal is to compute a small-size subset H of vertices of G such that by placing charging stations at vertices in H, every shortest path in G becomes EV-feasible, i...