This paper studies the step complexity of adaptive algorithms using primitives stronger than reads and writes. We first consider unconditional primitives, like fetch&inc, which modify the value of the register to which they are applied, regardless of its current value. Unconditional primitives admit snapshot algorithms with O(log(k)) step complexity, where k is the total or the...

We make progress on some questions related to polynomial approximations of AC^0. It is known, from the works of Tarui (Theoret. Comput. Sci. 1993) and Beigel, Reingold, and Spielman (Proc. 6th CCC 1991), that any AC^0 circuit of size s and depth d has an epsilon-error probabilistic polynomial over the reals of degree (log (s/epsilon))^{O(d)}. We improve this upper bound to (log s...

The celebrated Weil bound for character sums says that for any low-degree polynomial P and any additive character chi, either chi(P) is a constant function or it is distributed close to uniform. The goal of higher-order Fourier analysis is to understand the connection between the algebraic and analytic properties of polynomials (and functions, generally) at a more detailed level...

In the Tree Augmentation Problem (TAP) the goal is to augment a tree T by a minimum size edge set F from a given edge set E such that T+F is 2-edge-connected. The best approximation ratio known for TAP is 1.5. In the more general Weighted TAP problem, F should be of minimum weight. Weighted TAP admits several 2-approximation algorithms w.r.t. the standard cut-LP relaxation. The...

In this paper, we focus on revising a given program so that the average recovery time in the presence of an adversarial scheduler is bounded by a given threshold lambda. Specifically, we consider the scenario where the fault (or other unexpected action) perturbs the program to a state that is outside its set of legitimate states. Starting from this state, the program executes its...

We prove a general form of 'free-cut elimination' for first-order theories in linear logic, yielding normal forms of proofs where cuts are anchored to nonlogical steps. To demonstrate the usefulness of this result, we consider a version of arithmetic in linear logic, based on a previous axiomatisation by Bellantoni and Hofmann. We prove a witnessing theorem for a fragment of this...

Infinite duration games with regular conditions are one of the crucial tools in the areas of verification and synthesis. In this paper we consider a branching variant of such games - the game contains branching vertices that split the play into two independent sub-games. Thus, a play has the form of~an~infinite tree. The winner of the play is determined by a winning condition...

In computable analysis testing a real number for being zero is a fundamental example of a non-computable task. This causes problems for division: We cannot ensure that the number we want to divide by is not zero. In many cases, any real number would be an acceptable outcome if the divisor is zero - but even this cannot be done in a computable way. In this note we investigate the...

In the deterministic binary majority process we are given a simple graph where each node has one out of two initial opinions. In every round, each node adopts the majority opinion among its neighbors. It is known that this process always converges in O(|E|) rounds to a two-periodic state in which every node either keeps its opinion or changes it in every round. It has been shown...

The Chain Pair Simplification problem (CPS) was posed by Bereg et al. who were motivated by the problem of efficiently computing and visualizing the structural resemblance between a pair of protein backbones. In this problem, given two polygonal chains of lengths n and m, the goal is to simplify both of them simultaneously, so that the lengths of the resulting simplifications as...

Given a graph G=(V,E) with V={1,...,n}, we place on every vertex a token T_1,...,T_n. A swap is an exchange of tokens on adjacent vertices. We consider the algorithmic question of finding a shortest sequence of swaps such that token T_i is on vertex i. We are able to achieve essentially matching upper and lower bounds, for exact algorithms and approximation algorithms. For exact...

It is an open problem whether Yao-Yao graphs YY_{k} (also known as sparse-Yao graphs) are all spanners when the integer parameter k is large enough. In this paper we show that, for any integer k >= 42, the Yao-Yao graph YY_{2k} is a t_k-spanner, with stretch factor t_k = 6.03+O(k^{-1}) when k tends to infinity. Our result generalizes the best known result which asserts that all...

We address the trade-off between the computational resources needed to process a large data set and the number of samples available from the data set. Specifically, we consider the following abstraction: we receive a potentially infinite stream of IID samples from some unknown distribution D, and are tasked with computing some function f(D). If the stream is observed for time t...

We present KADABRA, a new algorithm to approximate betweenness centrality in directed and undirected graphs, which significantly outperforms all previous approaches on real-world complex networks. The efficiency of the new algorithm relies on two new theoretical contributions, of independent interest. The first contribution focuses on sampling shortest paths, a subroutine used by...

Let f: {0,1}^n*{0,1}^n -> {0,1} be a 2-party function. For every product distribution mu on {0,1}^n*{0,1}^n, we show that CC^{mu}_{0.49}(f) = O(log(prt_{1/8}(f))*log(log(prt_{1/8}(f)))^2), where CC^{mu}_{epsilon}(f) is the distributional communication complexity of f with error at most epsilon under the distribution mu and prt_{1/8}(f) is the partition bound of f, as defined by...

The Continuous Skolem Problem asks whether a real-valued function satisfying a linear differential equation has a zero in a given interval of real numbers. This is a fundamental reachability problem for continuous linear dynamical systems, such as linear hybrid automata and continuoustime Markov chains. Decidability of the problem is currently open � indeed decidability is open...

Let vec(theta) be a uniformly distributed random k-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses. For clauses/variables ratio m/n <= r_{k-SAT} ~ 2^k*ln(2) the formula vec(theta) is satisfiable with high probability. However, no efficient algorithm is known to provably find a satisfying assignment beyond m/n ~ 2k*ln(k)/k with a non-vanishing probability. Non-rigorous statistical...

The Moran process, as studied by Lieberman, Hauert and Nowak, is a randomised algorithm modelling the spread of genetic mutations in populations. The algorithm runs on an underlying graph where individuals correspond to vertices. Initially, one vertex (chosen uniformly at random) possesses a mutation, with fitness r > 1. All other individuals have fitness 1. During each step of...

We study the composition question for bounded-error randomized query complexity: Is R(f circ g) = Omega(R(f)R(g))? We show that inserting a simple function h, whose query complexity is onlyTheta(log R(g)), in between f and g allows us to prove R(f circ h circ g) = Omega(R(f)R(h)R(g)). We prove this using a new lower bound measure for randomized query complexity we call randomized...

We consider the online carpool fairness problem of [Fagin and Williams, 1983] in which an online algorithm is presented with a sequence of pairs drawn from a group of n potential drivers. The online algorithm must select one driver from each pair, with the objective of partitioning the driving burden as fairly as possible for all drivers. The unfairness of an online algorithm is...

We formalize a cryptographic primitive called functional commitment (FC) which can be viewed as a generalization of vector commitments (VCs), polynomial commitments and many other special kinds of commitment schemes. A non-interactive functional commitment allows committing to a message in such a way that the committer has the flexibility of only revealing a function of the...

We study the cryptographic complexity of two-party differentially-private protocols for a large natural class of boolean functionalities. Information theoretically, McGregor et al. [FOCS 2010] and Goyal et al. [Crypto 2013] demonstrated several functionalities for which the maximal possible accuracy in the distributed setting is significantly lower than that in the client-server...

A transformation mapping a labelled Markov chain to a simple stochastic game is presented. In the resulting simple stochastic game, each vertex corresponds to a pair of states of the labelled Markov chain. The value of a vertex of the simple stochastic game is shown to be equal to the probabilistic bisimilarity distance, a notion due to Desharnais, Gupta, Jagadeesan and...

A square factorization of a string w is a factorization of w in which each factor is a square. Dumitran et al. [SPIRE 2015, pp. 54-66] showed how to find a square factorization of a given string of length n in O(n log n) time, and they posed a question whether it can be done in O(n) time. In this paper, we answer their question positively, showing an O(n)-time algorithm for...

We consider various encodings that support range top-k queries on a two-dimensional array containing elements from a total order. For an m x n array, we first propose an almost optimal encoding for answering one-sided top-k queries, whose query range is restricted to [1 ... m][1 .. a], for 1 <= a <= n. Next, we propose an encoding for the general top-k queries that takes m^2 * lg...