Europhysics News

https://www.europhysicsnews.org/

List of Papers (Total 892)

Towards TeV-scale electron-positron collisions: the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a future electron-positron collider at the energy frontier, has the potential to change our understanding of the universe. Proposed to follow the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) programme at CERN, it is conceived for precision measurements as well as for searches for new phenomena.

A Tribute to Manne Siegbahn

Spectroscopy came to dominate the 19th century, with a crucial role for Swedish physicists. It was Anders Ångström who introduced the tenmillionth part of a millimeter as the wavelength unit (1868), a unit that was adopted by Rowland for his tables of the solar spectral lines (1887-1893). Janne Rydberg, then, followed in Ångström's footsteps in searching for relations between the...

Redressing the inverted pyramid of scientific publishing

Scientific publishing is currently undergoing a progressively rapid transformation away from the traditional subscription model. With the Open Access movement in full swing, existing business practices and future plans are coming under increasing scrutiny, while new “big deals” are being made at breakneck speed. Scientists can rightfully ask themselves if all these changes are...

Can you afford to wait? Designing the collider of the future

Designing a future circular collider is a next step in humanity’s quest to explain the world. This effort is not only about striving for a profound understanding of nature, but also about creating an exciting perspective for future generations.

A brief tour of the climate machine - 1 - The Climate machine, a two fluids thermal engine

The climate machine is a thermal engine that gets all its heat from the sun and redistributes it on the Earth surface through coupled fluid circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean. Water present on Earth in its three physical states — solid, liquid and gas — plays a key role in the climate.

Gender diversity in STEM

There is a strong business case for the value of diversity. Research by the World Economic Forum shows a 36% higher return on equity (ROE) for companies having a workforce with strong gender diversity. Also growth is influenced in a positive way: in 2009 - 2012 companies with a strong female leadership have increased their ROE by 10.1% as compared to an average of 7.4% for the...

A newcomer: the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

Stellarators (“star generators”) belong to the earliest concepts for magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas. In May 1951, a confidential report authored by Lyman Spitzer at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) was issued, in which he proposed the “figure eight” stellarator based on the idea to generate the required rotational transform of magnetic field lines by...

On the origin of the cosmic elements and the nuclear history of the universe

The quest for the energy source of stars, capable of maintaining their long-lasting brightness, has puzzled physicists during centuries. Early suggestions, due to Julius R. von Mayer, John James Waterson, Hermann von Helmholtz, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), among others, relied on the conversion of gravitational potential energy into heat. However, the age of the Sun...

Fascinating optics in a glass of water

In Ref. [1] Jo Hermans discussed how the image of a horizontal arrow behind a glass of water reverses direction when it is moved away from the glass. The present paper deals with some other interesting effects that can be observed when looking at a drawing (source) taped tightly onto the back of a cylindrical glass of water, or beer, or white wine, whatever the reader prefers.

EPL for the IYL 2015

The European Physical Society has greatly contributed to the celebration of the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies (IYL 2015) in various ways [1]. In particular Europhysics News has concluded the year 2015 with a Special Issue on the Science of Light which illustrates, through six short reviews, the leading role that Europe in maintaining in several areas of...

Small PET scanner based on MRI-compatible light sensor

Improving the quality of life of elderly people requires diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for diseases of the central nervous system, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and epilepsy which have a rapidly growing impact on society. Minimallyinvasive imaging technologies such as PET and MRI allow for monitoring and tracking these illnesses, starting from their preliminary...

Showering from high-energy cosmic rays - Can be measured in the high school science lab

In particle physics a ‘shower’ is the avalanche of secondary particles produced by an incoming particle with high energy. This production requires the interaction with mass. A shower produced by high-energy cosmic rays usually covers a wide area, on the order of a square kilometer. The secondary particles can be observed by using scintillators. In view of the large area affected...

Physics and theology

The role of theology in relation to science is not to try to tell physics how to answer its own proper questions. We have every reason to believe that physics questions will eventually receive physics answers. However there are meaningful and necessary questions which arise from considering the results of physics but which exceed its selflimited power to address.

‘In free fall’

Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that’s a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and...

The European Mathematical Society: the home for Mathematics in Europe

The European Physical Society has invited me to write an article on the European Mathematical Society (EMS) in its magazine, Europhysics News. This gives me a great opportunity to provide the community of European physicists with an overview of a learned society whose objectives are very similar to those of the European Physical Society. The longstanding connections between our...