Europhysics News

https://www.europhysicsnews.org/

List of Papers (Total 1,110)

Fantastic plastic makes the quantum leap

A Bose-Einstein condensate is an intriguing state of matter where extensive collective coherence leads to macroscopic quantum phenomena. It has now been demonstrated using a thin plastic film at room temperature. This provides a new, simple route to experimentally study many-body quantum physics and opens the door for device applications.

Light - cosmic messages from the past

The universe is filled with electromagnetic radiation, and visible light covers only a small section of its spectrum. The dominant sources of light are stars, with the energy originating from nuclear fusion processes in their interior. The question of energy generation in our sun and in other stars is the main focus of nuclear astrophysics.

Soft Janus, wrinkles and all

Right now you are probably sitting on a comfy cushion. This is most likely filled with polyurethane (PU) foam. PUs are very long molecules made up of many repeating units. If the repeating units are prepolymers – intermediate-mass building blocks – with more than two reactive end groups, a three-dimensional network will form – a rubber, or elastomer, which can behave elastically...

Stella Lux: the energy-positive family car

A family car that runs purely on solar energy, and that charges your home batteries when not on the road. In other words: a car that is Energy-positive. Can such a car be built? The answer is ‘Yes!’, as was shown by an enthusiastic group of students at Eindhoven University of Technology.

Miazma: physics edutainment through a computer game

The beginning of the 21st century is characterised by several contradictions and challenges. One of them is that scientific and technological development has never been as important for the well-being of humankind as today. Nevertheless, these fields seem to lose the attention of talented and interested youngsters.

Towards TeV-scale electron-positron collisions: the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a future electron-positron collider at the energy frontier, has the potential to change our understanding of the universe. Proposed to follow the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) programme at CERN, it is conceived for precision measurements as well as for searches for new phenomena.

A Tribute to Manne Siegbahn

Spectroscopy came to dominate the 19th century, with a crucial role for Swedish physicists. It was Anders Ångström who introduced the tenmillionth part of a millimeter as the wavelength unit (1868), a unit that was adopted by Rowland for his tables of the solar spectral lines (1887-1893). Janne Rydberg, then, followed in Ångström's footsteps in searching for relations between the...

Redressing the inverted pyramid of scientific publishing

Scientific publishing is currently undergoing a progressively rapid transformation away from the traditional subscription model. With the Open Access movement in full swing, existing business practices and future plans are coming under increasing scrutiny, while new “big deals” are being made at breakneck speed. Scientists can rightfully ask themselves if all these changes are...

Can you afford to wait? Designing the collider of the future

Designing a future circular collider is a next step in humanity’s quest to explain the world. This effort is not only about striving for a profound understanding of nature, but also about creating an exciting perspective for future generations.

A brief tour of the climate machine - 1 - The Climate machine, a two fluids thermal engine

The climate machine is a thermal engine that gets all its heat from the sun and redistributes it on the Earth surface through coupled fluid circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean. Water present on Earth in its three physical states — solid, liquid and gas — plays a key role in the climate.

Ion Coulomb crystals: from quantum technology to chemistry close to the absolute zero point

Ion Coulomb crystals are ordered structures of atomic or molecular ions stored in ion traps at temperatures close to the absolute zero point. These unusual “crystals” form the basis of extremely accurate clocks, provide an environment for precise studies of chemical reactions and enable advanced implementations of the technology for a quantum computer. In this article, we discuss...

A brief tour of the climate machine - 1 - The Climate machine, a two fluids thermal engine

The climate machine is a thermal engine that gets all its heat from the sun and redistributes it on the Earth surface through coupled fluid circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean. Water present on Earth in its three physical states — solid, liquid and gas — plays a key role in the climate.

Gender diversity in STEM

There is a strong business case for the value of diversity. Research by the World Economic Forum shows a 36% higher return on equity (ROE) for companies having a workforce with strong gender diversity. Also growth is influenced in a positive way: in 2009 - 2012 companies with a strong female leadership have increased their ROE by 10.1% as compared to an average of 7.4% for the...

A newcomer: the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

Stellarators (“star generators”) belong to the earliest concepts for magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas. In May 1951, a confidential report authored by Lyman Spitzer at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) was issued, in which he proposed the “figure eight” stellarator based on the idea to generate the required rotational transform of magnetic field lines by...

On the origin of the cosmic elements and the nuclear history of the universe

The quest for the energy source of stars, capable of maintaining their long-lasting brightness, has puzzled physicists during centuries. Early suggestions, due to Julius R. von Mayer, John James Waterson, Hermann von Helmholtz, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), among others, relied on the conversion of gravitational potential energy into heat. However, the age of the Sun...

CO2-Neutral Fuels

Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

Fascinating optics in a glass of water

In Ref. [1] Jo Hermans discussed how the image of a horizontal arrow behind a glass of water reverses direction when it is moved away from the glass. The present paper deals with some other interesting effects that can be observed when looking at a drawing (source) taped tightly onto the back of a cylindrical glass of water, or beer, or white wine, whatever the reader prefers.

EPL for the IYL 2015

The European Physical Society has greatly contributed to the celebration of the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies (IYL 2015) in various ways [1]. In particular Europhysics News has concluded the year 2015 with a Special Issue on the Science of Light which illustrates, through six short reviews, the leading role that Europe in maintaining in several areas of...