Translational Stroke Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/12975

List of Papers (Total 119)

The Neuronal Ischemic Tolerance Is Conditioned by the Tp53 Arg72Pro Polymorphism

Cerebral preconditioning (PC) confers endogenous brain protection after stroke. Ischemic stroke patients with a prior transient ischemic attack (TIA) may potentially be in a preconditioned state. Although PC has been associated with the activation of pro-survival signals, the mechanism by which preconditioning confers neuroprotection is not yet fully clarified. Recently, we have...

Uncovering the Rosetta Stone: Report from the First Annual Conference on Key Elements in Translating Stroke Therapeutics from Pre-Clinical to Clinical

The first annual Stroke Translational Research Advancement Workshop (STRAW), entitled “Uncovering the Rosetta Stone: Key Elements in Translating Stroke Therapeutics from Pre-Clinical to Clinical” was held at the University of Kentucky on October 4–5, 2017. This workshop was organized by the Center for Advanced Translational Stroke Science. The workshop consisted of 2 days of...

Human Ischaemic Cascade Studies Using SH-SY5Y Cells: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Low translational yield for stroke may reflect the focus of discovery science on rodents rather than humans. Just how little is known about human neuronal ischaemic responses is confirmed by systematic review and meta-analysis revealing that data for the most commonly used SH-SY5Y human cells comprises only 84 papers. Oxygen-glucose deprivation, H2O2, hypoxia, glucose-deprivation...

Non-Invasive Multimodality Imaging Directly Shows TRPM4 Inhibition Ameliorates Stroke Reperfusion Injury

The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel has been suggested to play a key role in the treatment of ischemic stroke. However, in vivo evaluation of TRPM4 channel, in particular by direct channel suppression, is lacking. In this study, we used multimodal imaging to assess edema formation and quantify the amount of metabolically functional brain salvaged after a...

Differential Proteomics for Distinguishing Ischemic Stroke from Controls: a Pilot Study of the SpecTRA Project

A diagnostic blood test for stroke is desirable but will likely require multiple proteins rather than a single “troponin.” Validating large protein panels requires large patient numbers. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a cost-effective tool for this task. We compared differences in the abundance of 147 protein markers to distinguish 20 acute cerebrovascular syndrome (ACVS) patients who...

Human Neural Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Improve Tissue and Functional Recovery in the Murine Thromboembolic Stroke Model

Over 700 drugs have failed in stroke clinical trials, an unprecedented rate thought to be attributed in part to limited and isolated testing often solely in “young” rodent models and focusing on a single secondary injury mechanism. Here, extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanometer-sized cell signaling particles, were tested in a mouse thromboembolic (TE) stroke model. Neural stem...

MRI Guiding of the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats Aimed to Improve Stroke Modeling

The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats closely imitates ischemic stroke and is widely used. Existing instrumental methods provide a certain level of MCAO guidance, but monitoring of the MCA-occluding intraluminal filament position and possible complications can be improved. The goal of this study was to develop a MRI-based method of simultaneous control of the...

Vascular and Tissue Changes of Magnetic Susceptibility in the Mouse Brain After Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been recently introduced as a novel MRI post-processing technique of gradient recalled echo (GRE) data. QSM is useful in depicting both brain anatomy and for detecting abnormalities. Its utility in the context of ischemic stroke has, however, not been extensively characterized so far. In this study, we explored the potential of QSM to...

Worse Outcome in Stroke Patients Treated with rt-PA Without Early Reperfusion: Associated Factors

Based on preclinical studies suggesting that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) may promote ischemic brain injuries, we investigated in patients the possible risk of worse clinical outcome after rt-PA treatment as a result of its inability to resolve cerebral ischemia. Here, we designed a cohort study using a retrospective analysis of patients who received treatment...

Route of Feeding as a Proxy for Dysphagia After Stroke and the Effect of Transdermal Glyceryl Trinitrate: Data from the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke Randomised Controlled Trial

Post-stroke dysphagia is common, associated with poor outcome and often requires non-oral feeding/fluids. The relationship between route of feeding and outcome, as well as treatment with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), was studied prospectively. The Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial assessed transdermal GTN (5 mg versus none for 7 days) in 4011 patients with acute stroke...

Melatonin Alleviates Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Secondary Brain Injury in Rats via Suppressing Apoptosis, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Mitochondria Injury

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a cerebrovascular disease with high mortality and morbidity, and the effective treatment is still lacking. We designed this study to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of melatonin on the secondary brain injury (SBI) after ICH. An in vivo ICH model was induced via autologous whole blood injection into the right basal ganglia in...

Infections Up to 76 Days After Stroke Increase Disability and Death

Early infection after stroke is associated with a poor outcome. We aimed to determine whether delayed infections (up to 76 days post-stroke) are associated with poor outcome at 90 days. Data came from the international Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Stroke (ENOS, ISRCTN99414122) trial. Post hoc data on infections were obtained from serious adverse events reports between 1 and 76 days...

Chronic Remote Ischemic Conditioning Is Cerebroprotective and Induces Vascular Remodeling in a VCID Model

Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) make up 50% of the cases of dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic remote ischemic conditioning (C-RIC) on improving long-term (6 months) outcomes and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and collateral formation in a mouse model of VCID. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (10 weeks) were randomly...

Cerebellar Exposure to Cell-Free Hemoglobin Following Preterm Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Causal in Cerebellar Damage?

Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated...

In Vivo Molecular MRI of ICAM-1 Expression on Endothelium and Leukocytes from Subacute to Chronic Stages After Experimental Stroke

Molecular MRI allows in vivo detection of vascular cell adhesion molecules expressed on inflamed endothelium, which enables detection of specific targets for anti-neuroinflammatory treatment. We explored to what extent MR contrast agent targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) could detect endothelial- and leukocyte-associated ICAM-1 expression at different stages...

Biomarkers of Acute Stroke Etiology (BASE) Study Methodology

Acute ischemic stroke affects over 800,000 US adults annually, with hundreds of thousands more experiencing a transient ischemic attack. Emergent evaluation, prompt acute treatment, and identification of stroke or TIA (transient ischemic attack) etiology for specific secondary prevention are critical for decreasing further morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular disease. The...

Evidence for Decreased Brain Parenchymal Volume After Large Intracerebral Hemorrhages: a Potential Mechanism Limiting Intracranial Pressure Rises

Potentially fatal intracranial pressure (ICP) rises commonly occur after large intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). We monitored ICP after infusing 100–160 μL of autologous blood (vs. 0 μL control) into the striatum of rats in order to test the validity of this common model with regard to ICP elevations. Other endpoints included body temperature, behavioral impairment, lesion volume...