Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 11,540)

Association of short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide with hospital admissions in China

Evidence on the acute effects of ambient carbon monoxide (CO) pollution on morbidity risk in developing countries is scarce and inconsistent. We conducted a multicity case-crossover study in 26 largest cities in China from January, 2014 to December, 2015 to examine the association between short-term exposure to CO and daily hospital admission. We fitted conditional logistic...

High-resolution observations on enrichment processes in the sea-surface microlayer

For decades, researchers assumed that enrichment of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sea surface microlayer (SML) is solely controlled by changes in the DOM concentration at this uppermost thin boundary layer between the ocean and the atmosphere. We conducted high-resolution observations of fluorescent-DOM (FDOM) at 13 stations in the coastal and open Atlantic Ocean to...

Different associations of sufficient and vigorous physical activity with BMI in Northwest China

Physical activity (PA) plays an important role in maintaining a healthy weight. To develop targeted strategies that encourage physical activity, knowledge of associations between intensity of physical activity (PA) levels and body mass index (BMI) is essential. We aimed to examine the relationship between sufficient and vigorous PA and BMI distribution among adults in northwest...

Slip flow through a non-uniform channel under the influence of transverse magnetic field

This study deals with the steady laminar slip flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a non-uniform permeable channel under the influence of transverse magnetic field. The reabsorption through the wall is accounted for by considering flux as a function of downstream distance. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations of motion are first transformed into a single...

An iPhone Application for Blood Pressure Monitoring via the Oscillometric Finger Pressing Method

We developed an iPhone X application to measure blood pressure (BP) via the “oscillometric finger pressing method”. The user presses her fingertip on both the front camera and screen to increase the external pressure of the underlying artery, while the application measures the resulting variable-amplitude blood volume oscillations via the camera and applied pressure via the...

Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25 Gbit/s

Violet laser diode (VLD) based ultrahigh-speed free-space optical (FSO) system is demonstrated for point-to-point data transmission. By directly encoding the VLD with 64-quadrature amplitude modulation discrete multi-tone (64-QAM DMT) data stream for optical wireless communication through 0.5–10 m in free space, the point-to-point VLD-based FSO link allows delivering the 64-QAM...

Steroid Receptor Coactivator-2 Controls the Pentose Phosphate Pathway through RPIA in Human Endometrial Cancer Cells

Steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2) is a transcriptional coregulator that modulates the activity of many transcription factors. Levels of SRC-2 are elevated in endometrial biopsies from polycystic ovary syndrome patients, a population predisposed to endometrial cancer (EC). Increased expression of SRC-2 is also detected in neoplastic endometrium suggesting a causal link...

Pupil dilation but not microsaccade rate robustly reveals decision formation

Pupil dilation, an indicator of arousal that is generally regarded as unspecific, amongst others reflects decision formation and reveals choice. Employing letter selection in a Go/NoGo task, we show that choice can robustly be predicted by the pupillary signal, even under the presence of strong interfering factors such as changes in brightness or motor execution. In addition, a...

Quantitative progression of retinitis pigmentosa by optical coherence tomography angiography

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a non-invasive alternative to fluorescein angiography that allows for the study of the retinal and choroidal vasculatures. In this retrospective cohort study of 28 patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), we used OCT-A to quantify changes in perfusion density, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and choriocapillaris blood flow...

The osteopontin-CD44 axis in hepatic cancer stem cells regulates IFN signaling and HCV replication

Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, and tumor progression in various tissues. OPN induces stemness by interacting with CD44, but the functional relevance of OPN-mediated interferon (IFN) signaling and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in stem cell populations remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of OPN on HCV...

Ultra-low noise optical injection locking amplifier with AOM-based coherent detection scheme

A novel optical injection locking amplifier with acousto-optic modulator based phase modulation and a coherent detection scheme for optical frequency transfer applications is experimentally demonstrated in this study. A commercial distributed feedback diode laser is injection-locked to the resonant frequency of the optical signal with an optical fiber path length of hundreds of...

Mechanistic modelling of viral spreading on empirical social network and popularity prediction

Online social networks are becoming major platforms for people to exchange opinions and information. While spreading models have been used to study the dynamics of spreading on social networks, the actual spreading mechanism on social networks may be different from these previous models due to users’ limited attention and heterogeneous interests. The tractability of the spreading...

Resting Frontal Asymmetry and Reward Sensitivity Theory Motivational Traits

The revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (rRST) of personality has conceptualized three main systems: the behavioural approach system (BAS), behavioural inhibition system (BIS), and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS). Research links greater relative left-frontal activity with BAS-related tendencies and impulsivity and greater relative right-frontal activity with “withdrawal...

OncomiR-10b hijacks the small molecule inhibitor linifanib in human cancers

The pervasive role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer pathobiology drives the introduction of new drug development approaches such as miRNA inhibition. In order to advance miRNA-therapeutics, meticulous screening strategies addressing specific tumor targets are needed. Small molecule inhibitors represent an attractive goal for these strategies. In this study, we devised a strategy...

Exploring the potential of NTME/GC-MS, in the establishment of urinary volatomic profiles. Lung cancer patients as case study

The growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide claims for the development of novel diagnostic strategies. In this study we aimed to explore the potential of an innovative methodology, based on a needle trap microextraction (NTME), combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as new approach to isolate and profile urinary volatile organic metabolites (VOMs...

ALS-causing mutations in profilin-1 alter its conformational dynamics: A computational approach to explain propensity for aggregation

Profilin-1 (PFN1) is a 140-amino-acid protein with two distinct binding sites―one for actin and one for poly-L-proline (PLP). The best-described function of PFN1 is to catalyze actin elongation and polymerization. Thus far, eight DNA mutations in the PFN1 gene encoding the PFN1 protein are associated with human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We and others recently showed...

A Versatile Sample Processing Workflow for Metagenomic Pathogen Detection

Metagenomics is currently the only generic method for pathogen detection. Starting from RNA allows the assessment of the whole sample community including RNA viruses. Here we present our modular concerted protocol for sample processing for diagnostic metagenomics analysis of human, animal, and food samples. The workflow does not rely on dedicated amplification steps at any stage...

A deconvolutional Bayesian mixing model approach for river basin sediment source apportionment

Increasing complexity in human-environment interactions at multiple watershed scales presents major challenges to sediment source apportionment data acquisition and analysis. Herein, we present a step-change in the application of Bayesian mixing models: Deconvolutional-MixSIAR (D-MIXSIAR) to underpin sustainable management of soil and sediment. This new mixing model approach...

A novel, non-invasive model for diagnosing liver fibrosis stage in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the platelet count-to-spleen volume ratio (PSR) for diagnosing hepatic fibrosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this interim analysis of an on-going prospective study, 117 patients with HCC and with or without cirrhosis or fibrosis in different stages were analyzed. Fibrosis staging negatively...

CEA: Combination-based gene set functional enrichment analysis

Functional enrichment analysis is a fundamental and challenging task in bioinformatics. Most of the current enrichment analysis approaches individually evaluate functional terms and often output a list of enriched terms with high similarity and redundancy, which makes it difficult for downstream studies to extract the underlying biological interpretation. In this paper, we...

Short-term high glucose culture potentiates pancreatic beta cell function

The exposure of pancreatic islets to high glucose is believed to be one of the causal factors of the progressive lowering of insulin secretion in the development of type 2 diabetes. The progression of beta cell failure to type 2 diabetes is preceded by an early positive increase in the insulin secretory response to glucose, which is only later followed by a loss in the secretion...

Effects of sustained daily latanoprost application on anterior chamber anatomy and physiology in mice

Latanoprost is a common glaucoma medication. Here, we study longitudinal effects of sustained latanoprost treatment on intraocular pressure (IOP) in C57BL/6J mice, as well as two potential side-effects, changes in iris pigmentation and central corneal thickness (CCT). Male C57BL/6J mice were treated daily for 16 weeks with latanoprost. Control mice were treated on the same...

A fundamental catalytic difference between zinc and manganese dependent enzymes revealed in a bacterial isatin hydrolase

The catalytic mechanism of the cyclic amidohydrolase isatin hydrolase depends on a catalytically active manganese in the substrate-binding pocket. The Mn2+ ion is bound by a motif also present in other metal dependent hydrolases like the bacterial kynurenine formamidase. The crystal structures of the isatin hydrolases from Labrenzia aggregata and Ralstonia solanacearum combined...

Class I and II Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Differentially Regulate Thermogenic Gene Expression in Brown Adipocytes

Class I histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) enhance whole body energy expenditure and attenuate high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. However, it is not clear whether this is exerted directly through activating brown fat thermogenesis. Here, we find that pan-HDACi TSA exerts paradoxical effects on brown fat gene expression, as it inhibits the expression of Ucp1, Pparγ and...

Optimal multisensory integration leads to optimal time estimation

Our brain compensates sensory uncertainty by combining multisensory information derived from an event, and by integrating the current sensory signal with the prior knowledge about the statistical structure of previous events. There is growing evidence that both strategies are statistically optimal; however, how these two stages of information integration interact and shape an...