Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 16,733)

CEA: Combination-based gene set functional enrichment analysis

Functional enrichment analysis is a fundamental and challenging task in bioinformatics. Most of the current enrichment analysis approaches individually evaluate functional terms and often output a list of enriched terms with high similarity and redundancy, which makes it difficult for downstream studies to extract the underlying biological interpretation. In this paper, we...

Short-term high glucose culture potentiates pancreatic beta cell function

The exposure of pancreatic islets to high glucose is believed to be one of the causal factors of the progressive lowering of insulin secretion in the development of type 2 diabetes. The progression of beta cell failure to type 2 diabetes is preceded by an early positive increase in the insulin secretory response to glucose, which is only later followed by a loss in the secretion...

Effects of sustained daily latanoprost application on anterior chamber anatomy and physiology in mice

Latanoprost is a common glaucoma medication. Here, we study longitudinal effects of sustained latanoprost treatment on intraocular pressure (IOP) in C57BL/6J mice, as well as two potential side-effects, changes in iris pigmentation and central corneal thickness (CCT). Male C57BL/6J mice were treated daily for 16 weeks with latanoprost. Control mice were treated on the same...

A fundamental catalytic difference between zinc and manganese dependent enzymes revealed in a bacterial isatin hydrolase

The catalytic mechanism of the cyclic amidohydrolase isatin hydrolase depends on a catalytically active manganese in the substrate-binding pocket. The Mn2+ ion is bound by a motif also present in other metal dependent hydrolases like the bacterial kynurenine formamidase. The crystal structures of the isatin hydrolases from Labrenzia aggregata and Ralstonia solanacearum combined...

Class I and II Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Differentially Regulate Thermogenic Gene Expression in Brown Adipocytes

Class I histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) enhance whole body energy expenditure and attenuate high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. However, it is not clear whether this is exerted directly through activating brown fat thermogenesis. Here, we find that pan-HDACi TSA exerts paradoxical effects on brown fat gene expression, as it inhibits the expression of Ucp1, Pparγ and...

Optimal multisensory integration leads to optimal time estimation

Our brain compensates sensory uncertainty by combining multisensory information derived from an event, and by integrating the current sensory signal with the prior knowledge about the statistical structure of previous events. There is growing evidence that both strategies are statistically optimal; however, how these two stages of information integration interact and shape an...

A microscopic Kapitza pendulum

Pyotr Kapitza studied in 1951 the unusual equilibrium features of a rigid pendulum when its point of suspension is under a high-frequency vertical vibration. A sufficiently fast vibration makes the top position stable, putting the pendulum in an inverted orientation that seemingly defies gravity. Kapitza’s analytical method, based on an asymptotic separation of fast and slow...

A steam-based method to investigate biofilm

Biofilm has become a major topic of interest in medical, food, industrial, and environmental bacteriology. To be relevant, investigation of biofilm behavior requires effective and reliable techniques. We present herein a simple and robust method, adapted from the microplate technique, in which steam is used as a soft washing method to preserve biofilm integrity and to improve...

Assessing Radiation Hardness of Silicon Photonic Sensors

In recent years, silicon photonic platforms have undergone rapid maturation enabling not only optical communication but complex scientific experiments ranging from sensors applications to fundamental physics investigations. There is considerable interest in deploying photonics-based communication and science instruments in harsh environments such as outer space, where radiation...

Unsupervised Medical Image Segmentation Based on the Local Center of Mass

Image segmentation is a critical step in numerous medical imaging studies, which can be facilitated by automatic computational techniques. Supervised methods, although highly effective, require large training datasets of manually labeled images that are labor-intensive to produce. Unsupervised methods, on the contrary, can be used in the absence of training data to segment new...

The Alboran volcanic-arc modulated the Messinian faunal exchange and salinity crisis

What process triggered the Mediterranean Sea restriction remains debated since the discovery of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). Recent hypotheses infer that the MSC initiated after the closure of the Atlantic-Mediterranean Betic and Rifean corridors, being modulated through restriction at the Gibraltar Strait. These hypotheses however, do not integrate contemporaneous...

Septins are critical regulators of osteoclastic bone resorption

Septins are known to play key roles in supporting cytoskeletal stability, vesicular transport, endo-/exocytosis, stabilizing cellular membranes and forming diffusion barriers. Their function in mammalian cells is poorly investigated. The osteoclast offers an interesting tool to investigate septins because all cellular activities septins were reported to be involved in are...

Gas exchange mechanisms in preterm infants on HFOV – a computational approach

High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a commonly used therapy applied to neonates requiring ventilatory support during their first weeks of life. Despite its wide application, the underlying gas exchange mechanisms promoting the success of HVOF in neonatal care are not fully understood until today. In this work, a highly resolved computational lung model, derived from...

Seroprevalence of Maternal and Cord Antibodies Specific for Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Mumps and Rubella in Shunyi, Beijing

Maternal antibodies contribute to the protection of young infants from infectious diseases during the early life. However, vaccinations for women of child-bearing age are not routine in China. Therefore, we investigated the level of protective immunity against vaccine preventable diseases in pregnant women and newborns in China. A total of 194 paired maternal and cord blood...

Nanospectroscopy Captures Nanoscale Compositional Zonation in Barite Solid Solutions

Scientists have long suspected that compositionally zoned particles can form under far-from equilibrium precipitation conditions, but their inferences have been based on bulk solid and solution measurements. We are the first to directly observe nanoscale trace element compositional zonation in <10 µm-sized particles using X-ray fluorescence nanospectroscopy at the Hard X-ray...

Prolonged co-treatment with HGF sustains epithelial integrity and improves pharmacological rescue of Phe508del-CFTR

Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited disease in Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the CFTR chloride channel, the most frequent of which is Phe508del. Phe508del causes not only intracellular retention and premature degradation of the mutant CFTR protein, but also defective channel gating and decreased half-life when experimentally rescued to the plasma membrane (PM...

Time-Series Analysis of Tumorigenesis in a Murine Skin Carcinogenesis Model

Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in understanding tumor heterogeneity and the process of tumor progression; however, the entire process of the transition of tumors from a benign to metastatic state remains poorly understood. In the present study, we performed a prospective cancer genome-sequencing analysis by employing an experimental carcinogenesis mouse model of...

Comprehensive Investigation on Controlling for CT Imaging Variabilities in Radiomics Studies

Radiomics has shown promise in improving models for predicting patient outcomes. However, to maximize the information gain of the radiomics features, especially in larger patient cohorts, the variability in radiomics features owing to differences between scanners and scanning protocols must be accounted for. To this aim, the imaging variability of radiomics feature values was...

Synergistic effect of land-use and vegetation greenness on vulture nestling body condition in arid ecosystems

Climate-driven environmental change and land-use change often interact in their impact on biodiversity, but these interactions have received little scientific attention. Here we study the effects of climate-driven environmental variation (i.e. vegetation greenness) and land-use (protected versus unprotected areas) on body condition of vulture nestlings in savannah landscapes. We...

Ovary abortion is prevalent in diverse maize inbred lines and is under genetic control

Crop improvement programs focus on characteristics that are important for plant productivity. Typically genes underlying these traits are identified and stacked to create improved cultivars. Hence, identification of valuable traits for plant productivity is critical for plant improvement. Here we describe an important characteristic for maize productivity. Despite the fact mature...

Identification of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Biomaterial Heterogeneity using Raman Chemical Mapping and NIR Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging

The present study investigated spatial heterogeneity in magnesium oxychloride cements within a model of a mould using hyperspectral chemical imaging (HCI). The ability to inspect cements within a mould allows for the assessment of material formation in real time in addition to factors affecting ultimate material formation. Both macro scale NIR HCI and micro scale pixel-wise Raman...

Optimizing the light delivery of linear-array-based photoacoustic systems by double acoustic reflectors

Although linear transducer arrays have been intensely used in photoacoustic imaging, their geometrical shape constrains light illumination. Today, most linear array based photoacoustic systems utilize side-illumination geometry, which consists of two line fiber bundles attached to the side of the probe. The angled light illumination increases the light travel distance in deep...

A Novel Non-contact Heart Rate Monitor Using Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) Radar Technology

We discovered that impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar could recognize cardiac motions in a non-contact fashion. Therefore, we measured the heart rate (HR) and rhythms using an IR-UWB radar sensor and evaluated the validity and reliability of the measurements in comparison to electrocardiography. The heart beats were measured in 6 healthy volunteers (18 samples) with...

Low-energy band structure and even-odd layer number effect in AB-stacked multilayer graphene

How atoms acquire three-dimensional bulk character is one of the fundamental questions in materials science. Before addressing this question, how atomic layers become a bulk crystal might give a hint to the answer. While atomically thin films have been studied in a limited range of materials, a recent discovery showing how to mechanically exfoliate bulk crystals has opened up the...