Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 15,931)

Colorimetric Aptasensor of Vitamin D3: A Novel Approach to Eliminate Residual Adhesion between Aptamers and Gold Nanoparticles

Colorimetric aptasensors based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) commonly feature ssDNA probes nonspecifically adsorbed to surface gold particles. A major limitation of this versatile method is the incomplete dissociation of the adsorbed nontarget binding segments of the aptamer sequence upon target binding. This results in weak or nonexistent sensor performance by preventing the...

The PPARα Agonist Fenofibrate Prevents Formation of Protein Aggregates (Mallory-Denk bodies) in a Murine Model of Steatohepatitis-like Hepatotoxicity

Chronic intoxication of mice with the porphyrinogenic compound 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) leads to morphological and metabolic changes closely resembling steatohepatitis, a severe form of metabolic liver disease in humans. Since human steatohepatitis (both the alcoholic and non-alcoholic type) is characterized by reduced expression of PPARα and disturbed...

Shear bands and the evolving microstructure in a drying colloidal film studied with scanning µ-SAXS

Shear localisation in thin bands is an important process involved in the plastic deformation of materials subject to stress. This process is often sensitive to the sample microstructure (amorphous/crystalline). Here we show using the scanning µ-SAXS technique, how these different microstructures influence the plastic deformations in a drying colloidal film. In crystalline samples...

Multifunctional Nanotherapeutics for the Treatment of neuroAIDS in Drug Abusers

HIV and substance abuse plays an important role in infection and disease progression. Further, the presence of persistent viral CNS reservoirs makes the complete eradication difficult. Thus, neutralizing the drug of abuse effect on HIV-1 infectivity and elimination of latently infected cells is a priority. The development of a multi-component [antiretroviral drugs (ARV), latency...

Integrating optical coherence tomography with gravimetric and video analysis (OCT-Gravimetry-Video method) for studying the drying process of polystyrene latex system

Latex, an aqueous dispersion of sub-micron polymer particles, is widely used as polymer binder in waterborne coatings and adhesives. Drying of a latex is inhomogeneous, during which the spatial distribution of particles is non-uniform and changes with time, usually resulting in a compromise of the integrity of a dried film. To study drying inhomogeneity of latex, we developed a...

Association of plasma microRNA expression with age, genetic background and functional traits in dairy cattle

A number of blood circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are proven disease biomarkers and have been associated with ageing and longevity in multiple species. However, the role of circulating miRNAs in livestock species has not been fully studied. We hypothesise that plasma miRNA expression profiles are affected by age and genetic background, and associated with health and production...

Dynamic expression of HOPX in alveolar epithelial cells reflects injury and repair during the progression of pulmonary fibrosis

Mechanisms of injury and repair in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) are critically involved in the progression of various lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Homeobox only protein x (HOPX) contributes to the formation of distal lung during development. In adult lung, alveolar epithelial type (AT) I cells express HOPX and lineage-labeled Hopx+ cells give...

Computational characterization and identification of human polycystic ovary syndrome genes

Human polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly heritable disease regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Identifying PCOS genes is time consuming and costly in wet-lab. Developing an algorithm to predict PCOS candidates will be helpful. In this study, for the first time, we systematically analyzed properties of human PCOS genes. Compared with genes not yet known to be...

Prenatal Maternal Stress from a Natural Disaster Alters Urinary Metabolomic Profiles in Project Ice Storm Participants

Prenatal stress is known to epigenetically program offspring physiology and behaviour, and may become a risk factor for adult complex diseases. To gain insight into the underlying environment-gene interactions, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyze urinary metabolomes of male and female adolescents who were in utero during the 1998 Quebec Ice Storm...

Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Partial Nitritation and Conventional Nitrification Systems for Nitrogen Removal

This work studied the microbial community in partial nitritation and complete nitrification processes, which were applied to treat the low Carbon Nitrogen ratio wastewater. The phospholipid fatty acid and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the sludge circulating ratio of 75% resulted in a good microbial growth and a higher abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria relative to...

Serum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induces senescence-related phenotype in bronchial epithelial cells

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for the development of lung cancer (LC). The mechanism of interplay between both diseases remains poorly recognized. This report examines whether COPD may cause a senescence response in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), leading to the progression of LC in a senescence-dependent manner. The results show that...

A facultative mutualistic feedback enhances the stability of tropical intertidal seagrass beds

Marine foundation species such as corals, seagrasses, salt marsh plants, and mangrove trees are increasingly found to engage in mutualistic interactions. Because mutualisms by their very nature generate a positive feedback between the species, subtle environmental impacts on one of the species involved may trigger mutualism breakdown, potentially leading to ecosystem regime...

Use of sucrose to diminish pore formation in freeze-dried heart valves

Freeze-dried storage of decellularized heart valves provides easy storage and transport for clinical use. Freeze-drying without protectants, however, results in a disrupted histoarchitecture after rehydration. In this study, heart valves were incubated in solutions of various sucrose concentrations and subsequently freeze-dried. Porosity of rehydrated valves was determined from...

Endogenous Galectin-9 Suppresses Apoptosis in Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts

Galectin-9 (Gal9) has been postulated to have anti-inflammatory properties based on the ability of exogenous Gal9 to induce apoptosis in synovial fibroblasts in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we aimed to assess the potential role of endogenous Galectins, including Gal9, in the inflammatory pathology of the RA synovium in humans. Firstly expression of Galectins 1...

A miR172 target-deficient AP2-like gene correlates with the double flower phenotype in roses

One of the well-known floral abnormalities in flowering plants is the double-flower phenotype, which corresponds to flowers that develop extra petals, sometimes even containing entire flowers within flowers. Because of their highly priced ornamental value, spontaneous double-flower variants have been found and selected for in a wide range of ornamental species. Previously, double...

An interaction network driven approach for identifying biomarkers for progressing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

Overlapping genes across high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (CIN2 and 3) and cancer may serve as potential biomarkers for this progressive disease. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of dysplastic (CIN2 and CIN3) and cancer cells were identified by microarray data analysis. Gene interaction network was constructed using the 98 common DEGs among the dysplastic and...

Definitive radiotherapy dose escalation with chemotherapy for treating non-metastatic oesophageal cancer

The locoregional failure rate remains high after concurrent chemoradiotherapy with standard-dose radiotherapy (RT, 50–50.4 Gy) for oesophageal cancer (EC). This retrospective study evaluated whether RT dose escalation was effective among 115 consecutive patients with non-metastatic EC (July 2003 to November 2016). Forty-four patients received an RT dose of <66 Gy and 71 patients...

Experimental evidence for the preservation of U-Pb isotope ratios in mantle-recycled crustal zircon grains

Zircon of crustal origin found in mantle-derived rocks is of great interest because of the information it may provide about crust recycling and mantle dynamics. Consideration of this requires understanding of how mantle temperatures, notably higher than zircon crystallization temperatures, affected the recycled zircon grains, particularly their isotopic clocks. Since Pb2...

Linking host morphology and symbiont performance in octocorals

Octocorals represent an important group in reef communities throughout the tropical seas and, like scleractinian corals, they can be found in symbiosis with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. However, while there is extensive research on this symbiosis and its benefits in scleractinians, research on octocorals has focused so far mainly on the host without addressing their symbiosis...

Sexual difference of small RNA expression in Tetralogy of Fallot

Small RNAs, especially the microRNAs, have been revealed to play great roles in heart development and congenital heart defects. Several studies have shown dysregulated miRNAs in ventricular tissues of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients. In the present study, we conducted high throughput sequencing to obtain the global profiling of small RNA transcriptome in heart right...

Metabolic reprogramming of stromal fibroblasts by melanoma exosome microRNA favours a pre-metastatic microenvironment

Local acidification of stroma is proposed to favour pre-metastatic niche formation but the mechanism of initiation is unclear. We investigated whether Human Melanoma-derived exosomes (HMEX) could reprogram human adult dermal fibroblasts (HADF) and cause extracellular acidification. HMEX were isolated from supernatants of six melanoma cell lines (3 BRAF V600E mutant cell lines and...

The statistical shape of geometric reasoning

Geometric reasoning has an inherent dissonance: its abstract axioms and propositions refer to perfect, idealized entities, whereas its use in the physical world relies on dynamic perception of objects. How do abstract Euclidean concepts, dynamics, and statistics come together to support our intuitive geometric reasoning? Here, we address this question using a simple geometric...

Relationships between alpha oscillations during speech preparation and the listener N400 ERP to the produced speech

While previous studies separately demonstrate EEG spectral modulations during speech preparation and ERP responses to the listened speech, it is unclear whether these responses are related on a trial-by-trial basis between a speaker and listener. In order to determine whether these responses are related in real-time, Electroencephalography (EEG) responses were measured...

B2 microglobulin is a novel prognostic marker of Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

The aim of the present study was to analyze features and explore parameters that can help to predict prognosis for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). A total of 117 patients with AITL were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate analysis showed that β2 microglobulin (β2-M) ≥4.0 mg/L (P = 0.020), rash/pruritus (P = 0.004), performance status (PS) ≥2 (P = 0.006), age >60...

Histone deacetylase-mediated regulation of the antimicrobial peptide hBD2 differs in intestinal cell lines and cultured tissue

Histone deacetylase inhibition (HDACi) has been suggested as a promising approach to bolster TLR-mediated induction of antimicrobial peptides such as human β-defensin 2 (hBD2). In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD) patients display an attenuated expression of hBD2 as compared to ulcerative colitis (UC). Here, we aimed to study if combining HDACi with the...