Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 1,126)

Mussel Inspired Polynorepinephrine Functionalized Electrospun Polycaprolactone Microfibers for Muscle Regeneration

Electrospun scaffolds with excellent mechanical properties, high specific surface area and a commendable porous network are widely used in tissue engineering. Improving the hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of hydrophobic substrates is the key point to enhance the effectiveness of electrospun scaffolds. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous membranes with appropriate...

How context alters value: The brain’s valuation and affective regulation system link price cues to experienced taste pleasantness

Informational cues such as the price of a wine can trigger expectations about its taste quality and thereby modulate the sensory experience on a reported and neural level. Yet it is unclear how the brain translates such expectations into sensory pleasantness. We used a whole-brain multilevel mediation approach with healthy participants who tasted identical wines cued with...

Continuous Production of Macroporous Films: an Alternative to Breath Figure Assembly

Despite the need for sophisticated instrumentation, breath figure assembly (BFA) methods are restricted to produce macroporous films on a tiny scale so far. The current study narrates the fabrication of macroporous films in hollow fiber geometry which extends to adopt the method for continuous production of isoporous surfaces from commercially available low-priced polymer...

Acclimation to prolonged hypoxia alters hemoglobin isoform expression and increases hemoglobin oxygen affinity and aerobic performance in a marine fish

Hemoglobin (Hb) multiplicity is common in fish, yet despite its ubiquitous nature, the functional significance is unclear. Here we explore the hypothesis that Hb multiplicity plays a role in hypoxia tolerance using the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Red drum is an economically and ecologically important species native to coastal regions and estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico...

Using blubber explants to investigate adipose function in grey seals: glycolytic, lipolytic and gene expression responses to glucose and hydrocortisone

Adipose tissue is fundamental to energy balance, which underpins fitness and survival. Knowledge of adipose regulation in animals that undergo rapid fat deposition and mobilisation aids understanding of their energetic responses to rapid environmental change. Tissue explants can be used to investigate adipose regulation in wildlife species with large fat reserves, when...

Ebola virus VP24 interacts with NP to facilitate nucleocapsid assembly and genome packaging

Ebola virus causes devastating hemorrhagic fever outbreaks for which no approved therapeutic exists. The viral nucleocapsid, which is minimally composed of the proteins NP, VP35, and VP24, represents an attractive target for drug development; however, the molecular determinants that govern the interactions and functions of these three proteins are still unknown. Through a series...

Three TF Co-expression Modules Regulate Pressure-Overload Cardiac Hypertrophy in Male Mice

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a dynamic remodeling process, is a major risk factor for heart failure. Although a number of key regulators and related genes have been identified, how the transcription factors (TFs) dynamically regulate the associated genes and control the morphological and electrophysiological changes during the hypertrophic process are still largely unknown...

Schematic eye-gaze cues influence infants’ object encoding dependent on their contrast polarity

We examined infants’ sensitivity to eye-gaze direction and its influence on object processing in 4-month-old infants by manipulating low-level properties of gaze cues. Infants were presented with two kinds of stimuli that either did or did not cue novel objects. The movement of a schematic image of two eyes (two black circles each moving on a white oval background) led to an...

High-Resolution Patterned Cellular Constructs by Droplet-Based 3D Printing

Bioprinting is an emerging technique for the fabrication of living tissues that allows cells to be arranged in predetermined three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, to date, there are limited examples of bioprinted constructs containing multiple cell types patterned at high-resolution. Here we present a low-cost process that employs 3D printing of aqueous droplets...

Differential Signalling and Kinetics of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Release Revealed by Quantitative Live Imaging

A wide variety of microbial and inflammatory factors induce DNA release from neutrophils as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consensus on the kinetics and mechanism of NET release has been hindered by the lack of distinctive methods to specifically quantify NET release in time. Here, we validate and refine a semi-automatic live imaging approach for quantification of NET...

Mutations targeting the coagulation pathway are enriched in brain metastases

Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common malignancy of the central nervous system. Recently it has been demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor serpins promote brain metastatic colonization, suggesting that mutations in serpins or other members of the coagulation cascade can provide critical advantages during BM formation. We performed whole-exome sequencing on...

Enhanced differential expression statistics for data-independent acquisition proteomics

We describe a new reproducibility-optimization method ROPECA for statistical analysis of proteomics data with a specific focus on the emerging data-independent acquisition (DIA) mass spectrometry technology. ROPECA optimizes the reproducibility of statistical testing on peptide-level and aggregates the peptide-level changes to determine differential protein-level expression...

Sexual and non-sexual social preferences in male and female white-eyed bulbuls

While the function of ornaments shaped by sexual selection is to attract mates or drive off rivals, these signals may also evolve through social selection, in which the social context affects the fitness of signallers and receivers. Classical ‘mate choice’ experiments often reveal preferences for ornaments, but few studies have considered whether these are strictly sexual or...

AIM2 Inflammasome-Mediated Pyroptosis in Enterovirus A71-Infected Neuronal Cells Restricts Viral Replication

Encephalomyelitis is a well-known complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) due to Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Viral RNA/antigens could be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) neurons in fatal encephalomyelitis but the mechanisms of neuronal cell death is not clearly understood. We investigated the role of absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome in...

Non-target effects on soil microbial parameters of the synthetic pesticide carbendazim with the biopesticides cantharidin and norcantharidin

Considering the fact that biopesticides are increasingly used to replace synthetic pesticides in pest control, it is necessary to assess their ecotoxicity and especially their non-target effects on soil microorganisms, which is largely unknown. In this study, the effects of the synthetic pesticide carbendazim and the biopesticides (cantharidin and norcantharidin) on soil...

RLR-mediated antiviral innate immunity requires oxidative phosphorylation activity

Mitochondria act as a platform for antiviral innate immunity, and the immune system depends on activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR) signaling pathway via an adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral signaling. We report that RLR-mediated antiviral innate immunity requires oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity, a prominent physiologic...

Patch clamp-assisted single neuron lipidomics

Our understanding of the physiological and pathological functions of brain lipids is limited by the inability to analyze these molecules at cellular resolution. Here, we present a method that enables the detection of lipids in identified single neurons from live mammalian brains. Neuronal cell bodies are captured from perfused mouse brain slices by patch clamping, and lipids are...

Costly neighbours: Heterospecific competitive interactions increase metabolic rates in dominant species

The energy costs of self-maintenance (standard metabolic rate, SMR) vary substantially among individuals within a population. Despite the importance of SMR for understanding life history strategies, ecological sources of SMR variation remain only partially understood. Stress-mediated increases in SMR are common in subordinate individuals within a population, while the direction...

Plasma biomarkers are associated with agitation and regional brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease

This study investigated the relationships among plasma biomarkers, regional brain atrophy, and clinical symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 177), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 60) and controls (n = 108). The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscales were administered to subjects...

The Anti-Hiv Candidate Abx464 Dampens Intestinal Inflammation by Triggering Il-22 Production in Activated Macrophages

The progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with mucosal damage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This damage enables bacterial translocation from the gut and leads to subsequent inflammation. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-exposure) is an established animal model for experimental colitis that was recently shown to recapitulate the link between GI-tract...

Long-Term Monitoring of Dolphin Biosonar Activity in Deep Pelagic Waters of the Mediterranean Sea

Dolphins emit short ultrasonic pulses (clicks) to acquire information about the surrounding environment, prey and habitat features. We investigated Delphinidae activity over multiple temporal scales through the detection of their echolocation clicks, using long-term Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM). The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare operates multidisciplinary seafloor...

Fullerene-Containing Electrically Conducting Electron Beam Resist for Ultrahigh Integration of Nanometer Lateral-Scale Organic Electronic Devices

An outstanding issue with organic devices is the difficulty of simultaneously controlling the lateral size and position of structures at submicron or nanometer scales. In this study, nanocomposite electron beam (EB) organic resists are proved to be excellent candidates for electrically conductive and/or memory component materials for submicron or nanometer lateral-scale organic...

Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on inflammation and cardiovascular risks in healthy overweight adults: a randomised crossover trial

Diets high in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are thought to be detrimental to cardiovascular health. However, there remains uncertainty about the beneficial effect of a low AGE diet on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers in overweight individuals. We thus performed a randomised, double blind, crossover trial to determine whether consumption of low AGE...

Fine Particulate Air Pollution and First Hospital Admissions for Ischemic Stroke in Beijing, China

The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between short-term changes in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and first hospital admissions for ischemic stroke. We identified 63,956 first hospital admissions for ischemic stroke from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees from January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2012. A generalized additive Poisson...

Sex differences in prostaglandin biosynthesis in neutrophils during acute inflammation

The severity and course of inflammatory processes differ between women and men, but the biochemical mechanisms underlying these sex differences are elusive. Prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators linked to inflammation. We demonstrated superior LT biosynthesis in human neutrophils and monocytes, and in mouse macrophages from females, and we confirmed these...