Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 15,931)

Electrical Stimulation with a Conductive Polymer Promotes Neurite Outgrowth and Synaptogenesis in Primary Cortical Neurons in 3D

Deficits in neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis have been recognized as an underlying developmental aetiology of psychosis. Electrical stimulation promotes neuronal induction including neurite outgrowth and branching. However, the effect of electrical stimulation using 3D electrodes on neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis has not been explored. This study examined the effect of...

Hypothesis on monochromatic vision in scorpionflies questioned by new transcriptomic data

In the scorpionfly Panorpa, a recent study suggested monochromatic vision due to evidence of only a single opsin found in transcriptome data. To reconsider this hypothesis, the present study investigates opsin expression using transcriptome data of 21 species including representatives of all major lineages of scorpionflies (Mecoptera) and of three families of their closest...

Ultra-broadband and compact graphene-on-silicon integrated waveguide mode filters

Increasing bandwidth demands in optical communications necessitates the introduction of mode-division multiplexing (MDM) on top of the existing wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems. Simultaneous management of both multiplexing systems will be a complex task, and there is the possibility of signal degradation through modal crosstalk. Here, we propose graphene-on-silicon...

The pial vasculature of the mouse develops according to a sensory-independent program

The cerebral vasculature is organized to supply the brain’s metabolic needs. Sensory deprivation during the early postnatal period causes altered neural activity and lower metabolic demand. Neural activity is instructional for some aspects of vascular development, and deprivation causes changes in capillary density in the deprived brain region. However, it is not known if the...

Mechanistic insights into the augmented effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and thiazolidinediones in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats

This study was designed to assess whether the protective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against diabetes could be enhanced by pioglitazone (PIO), a PPARγ agonist. Combined MSCs and PIO treatments markedly improved fasting blood glucose, body weight, lipid profile levels, insulin level, insulin resistance, β cell function. Those protective effects...

The Predictive Value of Head Circumference Growth during the First Year of Life on Early Child Traits

Atypical head circumference (HC) growth has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, whether it is associated with specific aspects of development in early childhood in the general population is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of HC growth as an early biomarker of behavioral traits. We examined longitudinal associations...

Mapping of brain tissue hematocrit in glioma and acute stroke using a dual autoradiography approach

Hematocrit (Hct) determines the ability of blood to carry oxygen. While changes in systemic Hct are known to impact stroke or tumor control, changes in local (tissue) Hct (tHct) induced by these diseases have however received little attention. In this study, we evaluate tHct in acute stroke and in glioma models using a new approach to map tHct across the brain, a dual isotope...

Mechanism Underlying Green Discolouration of Myoglobin Induced by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

In this study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying atmospheric pressure plasma (APP)-induced green discolouration of myoglobin. Green-coloured pigments are produced upon conversion of myoglobin into sulphmyoglobin, choleglobin, verdoheme, nitrihemin, or nitrimyoglobin. We exposed myoglobin dissolved in phosphate buffer to APP for 20 min and found a decrease in a* value...

Motility and chemotaxis of bacteria-driven microswimmers fabricated using antigen 43-mediated biotin display

Bacteria-driven biohybrid microswimmers (bacteriabots) combine synthetic cargo with motile living bacteria that enable propulsion and steering. Although fabrication and potential use of such bacteriabots have attracted much attention, existing methods of fabrication require an extensive sample preparation that can drastically decrease the viability and motility of bacteria...

Lacrimal Canaliculus Imaging Using Optical Coherence Tomography Dacryography

Lacrimal canaliculus (LC) has a key role in tear drainage, but it is difficult to evaluate the LC in detail, using the existing examinations. In this study, our novel LC imaging technique provided the high-resolution images of LC in a non-invasive manner. Three-dimensional images of LC were acquired via the palpebral conjunctiva from 20 healthy volunteers (20 eyes) and 10...

7B2 chaperone knockout in APP model mice results in reduced plaque burden

Impairment of neuronal proteostasis is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to pathogenic protein aggregation, and the role of secretory chaperone proteins in this process, are poorly understood. We have previously shown that the neural-and endocrine-specific secretory chaperone 7B2 potently blocks in...

Interaction between the barley allelochemical compounds gramine and hordenine and artificial lipid bilayers mimicking the plant plasma membrane

Some plants affect the development of neighbouring plants by releasing secondary metabolites into their environment. This phenomenon is known as allelopathy and is a potential tool for weed management within the framework of sustainable agriculture. While many studies have investigated the mode of action of various allelochemicals (molecules emitted by allelopathic plants...

Risk of Infection and Sepsis in Pediatric Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to Hospital Following Major Trauma

Head injury accounts for 29% of all traumatic deaths in children. Sepsis is significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality in adult traumatic brain injury patients. In the pediatric population, this relationship is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and trauma patients...

The role of sentrin-specific protease 2 substrate recognition in TGF-β-induced tumorigenesis

Smad4, a common-mediator of Smads, plays a central role in forming complexes with receptor-phosphorylated Smads, and then transduces transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signals into the nuclei. Although many cellular factors are involved in TGF-β induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration, very little is known with the mechanism of Smad4 regulation on...

Detection of small bunches of ions using image charges

A concept for detection of charged particles in a single fly-by, e.g. within an ion optical system for deterministic implantation, is presented. It is based on recording the image charge signal of ions moving through a detector, comprising a set of cylindrical electrodes. This work describes theoretical and practical aspects of image charge detection (ICD) and detector design and...

Optically-Monitored Nanopore Fabrication Using a Focused Laser Beam

Solid-state nanopores (ssNPs) are extremely versatile single-molecule sensors and their potential have been established in numerous biomedical applications. However, the fabrication of ssNPs remains the main bottleneck to their widespread use. Herein, we introduce a rapid and localizable ssNPs fabrication method based on feedback-controlled optical etching. We show that a focused...

Keratinocyte differentiation induces APOBEC3A, 3B, and mitochondrial DNA hypermutation

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are found in many types of cancers and suspected to be involved in carcinogenesis, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we report that consecutive C-to-T mutations (hypermutations), a unique feature of mutations induced by APOBECs, are found in mtDNA from cervical dysplasia and oropharyngeal cancers. In vitro, we found...

Strong activation effect on a ru-co-c thin film catalyst for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride

In this work, we prepared a series of Ni foam supported Ru-Co, Ru-Co-B and Ru-Co-C catalysts in the form of columnar thin films by magnetron sputtering for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. We studied the activity and durability upon cycling. We found a strong activation effect for the Ru-Co-C sample which was the highest ever reported. This catalyst reached in the second...

Noise-induced stabilization and fixation in fluctuating environment

The dynamics of a two-species community of N competing individuals are considered, with an emphasis on the role of environmental variations that affect coherently the fitness of entire populations. The chance of fixation of a mutant (or invading) population is calculated as a function of its mean relative fitness, the amplitude of fitness variations and their typical duration. We...

Cross-Cultural Evidence for Apparent Racial Outgroup Advantage: Congruence between Perceived Facial Aggressiveness and Fighting Success

Research into face processing consistently shows an outgroup disadvantage in areas such as recognition memory and emotional identification. Potential ingroup advantage with respect to inferences regarding personality and behavioural outcomes, on the other hand, has not yet been studied. In the present study, we used the faces of male professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters...

Novel haptens and monoclonal antibodies with subnanomolar affinity for a classical analytical target, ochratoxin A

Ochratoxin A is a potent toxic fungal metabolite whose undesirable presence in food commodities constitutes a problem of public health, so it is strictly regulated and controlled. For the first time, two derivatives of ochratoxin A (OTAb and OTAd) functionalized through positions other than the native carboxyl group of the mycotoxin, have been synthesized in order to better mimic...

Incentive motivation in pet dogs – preference for constant vs varied food rewards

Recently, there has been a move towards positive reinforcement using food rewards in animal training. By definition, rewards function as reinforcers if they increase or maintain the frequency of behaviour that they follow. However, in operant conditioning tasks animals frequently show systematic changes in performance – in particular a reduction in responding over time. One...

Ceratosaur palaeobiology: new insights on evolution and ecology of the southern rulers

Ceratosaur theropods ruled the Southern Hemisphere until the end of the Late Cretaceous. However, their origin was earlier, during the Early Jurassic, a fact which allowed the group to reach great morphological diversity. The body plans of the two main branches (Noasauridae and new name Etrigansauria: Ceratosauridae + Abelisauridae) are quite different; nevertheless, they are...

Coccolith dissolution within copepod guts affects fecal pellet density and sinking rate

The most common biomineral produced in the contemporary ocean is calcium carbonate, including the polymorph calcite produced by coccolithophores. The surface waters of the ocean are supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. As a result, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), such as calcite coccoliths, is not expected thermodynamically to dissolve in waters above the...

High Modularity Creates Scaling Laws

Scaling laws have been observed in many natural and engineered systems. Their existence can give useful information about the growth or decay of one quantitative feature in terms of another. For example, in the field of city analytics, it is has been fruitful to compare some urban attribute, such as energy usage or wealth creation, with population size. In this work, we use...