# Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

## List of Papers (Total 15,931)

#### Modeling of inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields in the nervous system: a novel paradigm in understanding cell interactions, disease etiology and therapy

All major processes in the nervous system depend on interactions between cells and nerve fibers. In this work we present a novel model of inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields originating from nerve fibers and delineate their influence on cells. By expanding Hodgkin-Huxley’s applied current into axial current, governed by$${J}_{i}^{j+1}=K\times {J}_{i}^{j}$$, we reveal that cell...

#### Roles of aberrant hemichannel activities due to mutant connexin26 in the pathogenesis of KID syndrome

Germline missense mutations in GJB2 encoding connexin (Cx) 26 have been found in keratitis, ichthyosis and deafness (KID) syndrome. We explored the effects of three mouse Cx26 mutants (Cx26-G12R, -G45E and -D50N) corresponding to KID syndrome-causative human mutants on hemichannel activities leading to cell death and the expression of immune response-associated genes. We analyzed...

#### Photofabrication of Highly Transparent Platinum Counter Electrodes at Ambient Temperature for Bifacial Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Platinum (Pt) counter electrodes (CEs) have consistently shown excellent electrocatalytic performance and holds the record of the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, its use for large-scale production is limited either by high temperature required for thermal decomposition of its precursor or by wastage of the material...

#### Interaction of polyamines, abscisic acid and proline under osmotic stress in the leaves of wheat plants

The exact relationship between polyamine, abscisic acid and proline metabolisms is still poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of putrescine and abscisic acid treatments alone or in combination with polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress were investigated in young wheat plants. It was observed that abscisic acid plays a role in the coordinated regulation of the...

#### Perrault syndrome type 3 caused by diverse molecular defects in CLPP

The maintenance of mitochondrial protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is crucial for correct cellular function. Recently, several mutations in the mitochondrial protease CLPP have been identified in patients with Perrault syndrome 3 (PRLTS3). These mutations can be arranged into two groups, those that cluster near the docking site (hydrophobic pocket, Hp) for the cognate unfoldase...

#### Simple and reliable direct patterning method for carbon-free solution-processed metal oxide TFTs

Metal oxide TFT fabrication based on a solution-processing method is considered a promising alternative to conventional vacuum processing and has a number of advantages such as low cost, large-area fabrication, and process simplicity. A simple and reliable, direct patterning method for obtaining a carbon-free aqueous metal oxide film is presented herein. Patterning, which is...

#### Specific Alterations in Astrocyte Properties via the GluA2-GAPDH Complex Associated with Multiple Sclerosis

There is strong evidence indicating neuroinflammation is an important mediator in multiple sclerosis (MS), with astrogliosis playing a significant role in this process. Surprisingly, astrocytes exert paradoxical roles during disease development, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Previously, we have reported that administering an interfering peptide (GluA2-G-Gpep) which...

#### Proteomic and immunochemical approaches to understanding the glycation behaviour of the casein and β-lactoglobulin fractions of flavoured drinks under UHT processing conditions

Dairy technology used to produce sweetened milk products might introduce additional advanced glycation end products (AGEs) into the diet. These molecular messengers are linked to detrimental health effects. Using a model accurate to the thermal treatment, reducing sugars, main protein content, and prolonged storage of ultra-high-temperature-sterilized (UHT) milk, we studied the...

#### A screening assay for Selective Dimerizing Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists and Modulators (SEDIGRAM) that are effective against acute inflammation

It has been suggested that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists that promote GR homodimerization more than standard glucocorticoids such as Dexamethasone could be more effective anti-inflammatory molecules against acute and life-threatening inflammatory conditions. To test this hypothesis, we set up a screening pipeline aimed at discovering such Selective Dimerizing GR Agonists...

#### A novel pathway for the photooxidation of catechin in relation to its prooxidative activity

In the present study, we evaluated the prooxidative mode of action of photoirradiated (+)-catechin at 400 nm in relation to reactive oxygen species generation and its possible application to disinfection. Photoirradiation of (+)-catechin at a concentration of 1 mg/mL yielded not only hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but hydroxyl radical (·OH) in a total amount of approximately 20 μM in...

#### Heterogeneity in topographic control on velocities of Western Himalayan glaciers

Studies of the seasonal and annual patterns of glacier velocities improve our understanding of the ice volume, topography, responses to climate change, and surge events of glaciers. Such studies are especially relevant and equally rare for the Himalayan glaciers, which supply many rivers that sustain some of the most heavily populated mountainous regions in the world. In...

#### Non-negligible Water-permeance through Nanoporous Ion Exchange Medium

While the water impermeable constraint has been conventionally adopted for analyzing the transport phenomena at the interface of electrolyte/nanoporous medium, non-negligible water-permeance through the medium results in significant effect on ion and particle transportation. In this work, a rigorous theoretical and experimental analysis of the water-permeance effect were...

#### Oxidative Stress is a Convincing Contributor to Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue

The linkage between oxidative stress and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) has not been explored in detail. This study thoroughly compared the serum levels of biomarkers for oxidative stress and antioxidants from 103 subjects with ICF (20 men and 83 women) to those of 82 healthy volunteers (27 men and 55 women). Oxidative parameters, which included reactive oxygen species (ROS...

#### New Insight into Pseudo-Thermal Convection in Vibrofluidised Granular Systems

Utilising a combination of experimental results obtained via positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) and numerical simulations, we study the influence of a system’s geometric and elastic properties on the convective behaviours of a dilute, vibrofluidised granular assembly. Through the use of a novel, ‘modular’ system geometry, we demonstrate the existence of several previously...

#### A deep convolutional neural network approach for astrocyte detection

Astrocytes are involved in various brain pathologies including trauma, stroke, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, or chronic pain. Determining cell density in a complex tissue environment in microscopy images and elucidating the temporal characteristics of morphological and biochemical changes is essential to understand the role of...

#### Global long-term observations of coastal erosion and accretion

Changes in coastal morphology have broad consequences for the sustainability of coastal communities, structures and ecosystems. Although coasts are monitored locally in many places, understanding long-term changes at a global scale remains a challenge. Here we present a global and consistent evaluation of coastal morphodynamics over 32 years (1984–2015) based on satellite...

#### Different Behaviors of a Substrate in P450 Decarboxylase and Hydroxylase Reveal Reactivity-Enabling Actors

Biological routes to the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks hold significant promise in our efforts towards a sustainable future. The fatty acid decarboxylase enzyme (OleTJE) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts long and medium chain fatty acids to terminal alkenes and shares significant similarities in terms of structure, substrate scope and mechanism with the...

#### Ethanol and C2 ceramide activate fatty acid oxidation in human hepatoma cells

Obesogenic lipids and the sphingolipid ceramide have been implicated as potential cofactors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) patients. However, the mechanisms by which these lipids modulate lipid trafficking in ethanol-treated human liver cells to promote steatosis, an early stage of ALD, are poorly understood. We measured fatty acid (FA) uptake, triglyceride export, FA synthesis...

#### Angiopep-2/IP10-EGFRvIIIscFv modified nanoparticles and CTL synergistically inhibit malignant glioblastoma

Preparation of agents that can successfully traverse the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is a key challenge in brain cancer therapeutics. In this study, angiopep-2 was used as a brain-targeting peptide for preparing multifunctional Angiopep-2-modified poly nanoparticles, angiopep-2 and IP10-EGFRvIIIscFv fusion protein modified nanoparticles. In vitro experiments showed a greater uptake...

#### The fastest animals and vehicles are neither the biggest nor the fastest over lifetime

Here we show how the size of a body affects its maximum average speed of movement through its environment. The theoretical challenge was to predict that ‘outliers’ must exist, such as the cheetah for terrestrial animals and the jet fighter for airplanes. We show that during a travel that starts from rest and continues at cruising speed, the body size for minimum travel time, or...

#### Soluble cMet levels in urine are a significant prognostic biomarker for diabetic nephropathy

Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor cMet activate biological pathways necessary for repair and regeneration following kidney injury. Here, we evaluated the clinical role of urinary cMet as a prognostic biomarker in diabetic nephropathy (DN). A total of 218 patients with DN were enrolled in this study. We examined the association of urine cMet levels and long-term outcomes...

#### Zircon U-Pb geochronology of crystal tuff on Lingshan Island and its geological implications for magmatism, stratigraphic age and geological events

Due to the unique location in the Ludong region, geochronological study of this area is essential for the understanding of the Cretaceous tectonic evolution of Eastern China. Sedimentary sequences interbedded with tuff layers unconformably overlay metamorphic rocks in the Sulu Orogen. This research presents a more reliable geochronological dataset of a tuff layer on Lingshan...

#### Rigorous formulation of space-charge wake function and impedance by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation

In typical numerical simulations, the space-charge force is calculated by slicing a beam into many longitudinal segments and by solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation in each segment. This method neglects longitudinal leakage of the space-charge force to nearby segments owing to its longitudinal spread over 1/γ. By contrast, the space-charge impedance, which is the Fourier...

#### Modulation of Cosmogenic Tritium in Meteoric Precipitation by the 11-year Cycle of Solar Magnetic Field Activity

The relationship between the atmospheric concentration of cosmogenic isotopes, the change of solar activity and hence secondary neutron flux has already been proven. The temporal atmospheric variation of the most studied cosmogenic isotopes shows a significant anti-correlation with solar cycles. However, since artificial tritium input to the atmosphere due to nuclear-weapon tests...

#### Impact of fetal maceration grade on risk of maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation after intrauterine fetal death – A retrospective cohort study

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a life-threatening event that is the endpoint of a pathologically activated cascade leading to excessive consumption of platelets culminating in bleeding. Several diseases are known to be associated with DIC, some of which may also occur during pregnancy or the puerperium. One of the potential risk factors that have been considered...