Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 17,998)

Non-negligible Water-permeance through Nanoporous Ion Exchange Medium

While the water impermeable constraint has been conventionally adopted for analyzing the transport phenomena at the interface of electrolyte/nanoporous medium, non-negligible water-permeance through the medium results in significant effect on ion and particle transportation. In this work, a rigorous theoretical and experimental analysis of the water-permeance effect were...

Oxidative Stress is a Convincing Contributor to Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue

The linkage between oxidative stress and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) has not been explored in detail. This study thoroughly compared the serum levels of biomarkers for oxidative stress and antioxidants from 103 subjects with ICF (20 men and 83 women) to those of 82 healthy volunteers (27 men and 55 women). Oxidative parameters, which included reactive oxygen species (ROS...

New Insight into Pseudo-Thermal Convection in Vibrofluidised Granular Systems

Utilising a combination of experimental results obtained via positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) and numerical simulations, we study the influence of a system’s geometric and elastic properties on the convective behaviours of a dilute, vibrofluidised granular assembly. Through the use of a novel, ‘modular’ system geometry, we demonstrate the existence of several previously...

Defining the architecture of KPC-2 Carbapenemase: identifying allosteric networks to fight antibiotics resistance

The rise of multi-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens is one of the grand challenges facing medical science. A major concern is the speed of development of β-lactamase-mediated resistance in Gram-negative species, thus putting at risk the efficacy of the most recently approved antibiotics and inhibitors, including carbapenems and avibactam, respectively. New strategies to...

A deep convolutional neural network approach for astrocyte detection

Astrocytes are involved in various brain pathologies including trauma, stroke, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, or chronic pain. Determining cell density in a complex tissue environment in microscopy images and elucidating the temporal characteristics of morphological and biochemical changes is essential to understand the role of...

Global long-term observations of coastal erosion and accretion

Changes in coastal morphology have broad consequences for the sustainability of coastal communities, structures and ecosystems. Although coasts are monitored locally in many places, understanding long-term changes at a global scale remains a challenge. Here we present a global and consistent evaluation of coastal morphodynamics over 32 years (1984–2015) based on satellite...

Different Behaviors of a Substrate in P450 Decarboxylase and Hydroxylase Reveal Reactivity-Enabling Actors

Biological routes to the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks hold significant promise in our efforts towards a sustainable future. The fatty acid decarboxylase enzyme (OleTJE) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts long and medium chain fatty acids to terminal alkenes and shares significant similarities in terms of structure, substrate scope and mechanism with the...

Ethanol and C2 ceramide activate fatty acid oxidation in human hepatoma cells

Obesogenic lipids and the sphingolipid ceramide have been implicated as potential cofactors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) patients. However, the mechanisms by which these lipids modulate lipid trafficking in ethanol-treated human liver cells to promote steatosis, an early stage of ALD, are poorly understood. We measured fatty acid (FA) uptake, triglyceride export, FA synthesis...

Angiopep-2/IP10-EGFRvIIIscFv modified nanoparticles and CTL synergistically inhibit malignant glioblastoma

Preparation of agents that can successfully traverse the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is a key challenge in brain cancer therapeutics. In this study, angiopep-2 was used as a brain-targeting peptide for preparing multifunctional Angiopep-2-modified poly nanoparticles, angiopep-2 and IP10-EGFRvIIIscFv fusion protein modified nanoparticles. In vitro experiments showed a greater uptake...

The fastest animals and vehicles are neither the biggest nor the fastest over lifetime

Here we show how the size of a body affects its maximum average speed of movement through its environment. The theoretical challenge was to predict that ‘outliers’ must exist, such as the cheetah for terrestrial animals and the jet fighter for airplanes. We show that during a travel that starts from rest and continues at cruising speed, the body size for minimum travel time, or...

Soluble cMet levels in urine are a significant prognostic biomarker for diabetic nephropathy

Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor cMet activate biological pathways necessary for repair and regeneration following kidney injury. Here, we evaluated the clinical role of urinary cMet as a prognostic biomarker in diabetic nephropathy (DN). A total of 218 patients with DN were enrolled in this study. We examined the association of urine cMet levels and long-term outcomes...

Zircon U-Pb geochronology of crystal tuff on Lingshan Island and its geological implications for magmatism, stratigraphic age and geological events

Due to the unique location in the Ludong region, geochronological study of this area is essential for the understanding of the Cretaceous tectonic evolution of Eastern China. Sedimentary sequences interbedded with tuff layers unconformably overlay metamorphic rocks in the Sulu Orogen. This research presents a more reliable geochronological dataset of a tuff layer on Lingshan...

Rigorous formulation of space-charge wake function and impedance by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation

In typical numerical simulations, the space-charge force is calculated by slicing a beam into many longitudinal segments and by solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation in each segment. This method neglects longitudinal leakage of the space-charge force to nearby segments owing to its longitudinal spread over 1/γ. By contrast, the space-charge impedance, which is the Fourier...

Modulation of Cosmogenic Tritium in Meteoric Precipitation by the 11-year Cycle of Solar Magnetic Field Activity

The relationship between the atmospheric concentration of cosmogenic isotopes, the change of solar activity and hence secondary neutron flux has already been proven. The temporal atmospheric variation of the most studied cosmogenic isotopes shows a significant anti-correlation with solar cycles. However, since artificial tritium input to the atmosphere due to nuclear-weapon tests...

Impact of fetal maceration grade on risk of maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation after intrauterine fetal death – A retrospective cohort study

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a life-threatening event that is the endpoint of a pathologically activated cascade leading to excessive consumption of platelets culminating in bleeding. Several diseases are known to be associated with DIC, some of which may also occur during pregnancy or the puerperium. One of the potential risk factors that have been considered...

Cytochrome C oxidase Inhibition and Cold Plasma-derived Oxidants Synergize in Melanoma Cell Death Induction

Despite striking advances in the treatment of metastasized melanoma, the disease is often still fatal. Attention is therefore paid towards combinational regimens. Oxidants endogenously produced in mitochondria are currently targeted in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Cytotoxic synergism of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) inhibition in conjunction with addition of...

Pan-cancer analysis of neoepitopes

Somatic variations are frequent and important drivers in cancers. Amino acid substitutions can yield neoantigens that are detected by the immune system. Neoantigens can lead to immune response and tumor rejection. Although neoantigen load and occurrence have been widely studied, a detailed pan-cancer analysis of the occurrence and characterization of neoepitopes is missing. We...

Evaluating Tumor Evolution via Genomic Profiling of Individual Tumor Spheroids in a Malignant Ascites

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a silent but mostly lethal gynecologic malignancy. Most patients present with malignant ascites and peritoneal seeding at diagnosis. In the present study, we used a laser-aided isolation technique to investigate the clonal relationship between the primary tumor and tumor spheroids found in the malignant ascites of an EOC patient. Somatic...

Protein stabilization with retained function of monellin using a split GFP system

Sweet proteins are an unexploited resource in the search for non-carbohydrate sweeteners mainly due to their low stability towards heating. Variants of the sweet protein monellin, with increased stability, were derived by an in vivo screening method based on the thermodynamic linkage between fragment complementation and protein stability. This approach depends on the correlation...

Intra-individual alterations of serum markers routinely used in forensic pathology depending on increasing post-mortem interval

Post-mortem biochemistry of serum markers has been the subject of numerous studies, but in-situ marker stability after death has not been sufficiently evaluated yet. Such laboratory analyses are especially necessary in the cases of functional deaths without morphological evidence of the death causes and also in cardiac death cases with only very short survival times. The aim of...

Collaboration of tRNA modifications and elongation factor eEF1A in decoding and nonsense suppression

Transfer RNA (tRNA) from all domains of life contains multiple modified nucleosides, the functions of which remain incompletely understood. Genetic interactions between tRNA modification genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that different tRNA modifications collaborate to maintain translational efficiency. Here we characterize such collaborative functions in the ochre...

An Adult Zebrafish Model Reveals that Mucormycosis Induces Apoptosis of Infected Macrophages

Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection caused by various ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order, although Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. are the most prevalent causal agents. The limited therapeutic options available together with a rapid progression of the infection and a difficult early diagnosis produce high mortality. Here, we developed an adult...

Sodium Reduction, miRNA Profiling and CVD Risk in Untreated Hypertensives: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Sodium reduction decreases blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that reduction of sodium intake would change miRNA expression in hypertensive patients, and those changes would be associated with improved cardiovascular phenotypes. A whole genome RNA sequencing was performed...

Event-related potentials of automatic imitation are modulated by ethnicity during stimulus processing, but not during motor execution

This study investigated neural processes underlying automatic imitation and its modulation by ethnically diverse hand stimuli (Black, White) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Automatic imitation relies on motor stimulus-response compatibility (SRC), i.e., response conflict caused by motoric (in)congruency between task-irrelevant hand stimuli and the required response...

Effect of Kinetic Degrees of Freedom on Multi-Finger Synergies and Task Performance during Force Production and Release Tasks

Complex structures present in a human body has relatively large degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) as compared to the requirement of a particular task. This phenomenon called motor redundancy initially deemed as a computational problem rather can be understood as having the flexibility to perform the certain task successfully. Hence, the purpose of our study was to examine the positive...