Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 837)

Pan-cancer analysis of neoepitopes

Somatic variations are frequent and important drivers in cancers. Amino acid substitutions can yield neoantigens that are detected by the immune system. Neoantigens can lead to immune response and tumor rejection. Although neoantigen load and occurrence have been widely studied, a detailed pan-cancer analysis of the occurrence and characterization of neoepitopes is missing. We...

Evaluating Tumor Evolution via Genomic Profiling of Individual Tumor Spheroids in a Malignant Ascites

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a silent but mostly lethal gynecologic malignancy. Most patients present with malignant ascites and peritoneal seeding at diagnosis. In the present study, we used a laser-aided isolation technique to investigate the clonal relationship between the primary tumor and tumor spheroids found in the malignant ascites of an EOC patient. Somatic...

Protein stabilization with retained function of monellin using a split GFP system

Sweet proteins are an unexploited resource in the search for non-carbohydrate sweeteners mainly due to their low stability towards heating. Variants of the sweet protein monellin, with increased stability, were derived by an in vivo screening method based on the thermodynamic linkage between fragment complementation and protein stability. This approach depends on the correlation...

Intra-individual alterations of serum markers routinely used in forensic pathology depending on increasing post-mortem interval

Post-mortem biochemistry of serum markers has been the subject of numerous studies, but in-situ marker stability after death has not been sufficiently evaluated yet. Such laboratory analyses are especially necessary in the cases of functional deaths without morphological evidence of the death causes and also in cardiac death cases with only very short survival times. The aim of...

Collaboration of tRNA modifications and elongation factor eEF1A in decoding and nonsense suppression

Transfer RNA (tRNA) from all domains of life contains multiple modified nucleosides, the functions of which remain incompletely understood. Genetic interactions between tRNA modification genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that different tRNA modifications collaborate to maintain translational efficiency. Here we characterize such collaborative functions in the ochre...

An Adult Zebrafish Model Reveals that Mucormycosis Induces Apoptosis of Infected Macrophages

Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection caused by various ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order, although Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. are the most prevalent causal agents. The limited therapeutic options available together with a rapid progression of the infection and a difficult early diagnosis produce high mortality. Here, we developed an adult...

Sodium Reduction, miRNA Profiling and CVD Risk in Untreated Hypertensives: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Sodium reduction decreases blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that reduction of sodium intake would change miRNA expression in hypertensive patients, and those changes would be associated with improved cardiovascular phenotypes. A whole genome RNA sequencing was performed...

Event-related potentials of automatic imitation are modulated by ethnicity during stimulus processing, but not during motor execution

This study investigated neural processes underlying automatic imitation and its modulation by ethnically diverse hand stimuli (Black, White) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Automatic imitation relies on motor stimulus-response compatibility (SRC), i.e., response conflict caused by motoric (in)congruency between task-irrelevant hand stimuli and the required response...

Effect of Kinetic Degrees of Freedom on Multi-Finger Synergies and Task Performance during Force Production and Release Tasks

Complex structures present in a human body has relatively large degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) as compared to the requirement of a particular task. This phenomenon called motor redundancy initially deemed as a computational problem rather can be understood as having the flexibility to perform the certain task successfully. Hence, the purpose of our study was to examine the positive...

Mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with psychosis severity and anti-psychotic treatment

Mitochondrial pathology has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders. A few studies have proposed reduced leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder type I, compared to healthy controls. However, it is unknown if mtDNA copy number alteration is driven by psychosis, comorbidity or treatment. Whole blood mtDNA copy number...

External Fixation versus Unreamed Tibial Intramedullary Nailing for Open Tibial Fractures: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Controversy exists over whether the use of external fixation (EF) or unreamed tibial intramedullary nailing (UTN) is optimal for the treatment of open tibial fractures. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes in terms of postoperative superficial and deep infection, malunion, delayed union, nonunion and hardware failure between these two treatment methods. So a...

Nucleation of superfluid-light domains in a quenched dynamics

Strong correlation effects emerge from light-matter interactions in coupled resonator arrays, such as the Mott-insulator to superfluid phase transition of atom-photon excitations. We demonstrate that the quenched dynamics of a finite-sized complex array of coupled resonators induces a first-order like phase transition. The latter is accompanied by domain nucleation that can be...

PR-LncRNA signature regulates glioma cell activity through expression of SOX factors

Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have emerged as a relevant class of genome regulators involved in a broad range of biological processes and with important roles in tumor initiation and malignant progression. We have previously identified a p53-regulated tumor suppressor signature of LncRNAs (PR-LncRNAs) in colorectal cancer. Our aim was to identify the expression and function of...

Selection scan reveals three new loci related to high altitude adaptation in Native Andeans

The Andean Altiplano has been occupied continuously since the late Pleistocene, ~12,000 years ago, which places the Andean natives as one of the most ancient populations living at high altitudes. In the present study, we analyzed genomic data from Native Americans living a long-time at Andean high altitude and at Amazonia and Mesoamerica lowland areas. We have identified three...

Mapping discontinuous epitopes for MRK-16, UIC2 and 4E3 antibodies to extracellular loops 1 and 4 of human P-glycoprotein

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, is associated with the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Antibody-mediated blockade of human P-gp activity has been shown to overcome drug resistance by re-sensitizing resistant cancer cells to anticancer drugs. Despite the potential clinical application of this finding, the epitopes of the three human P-gp...

Alteration of β-Adrenoceptor Signaling in Left Ventricle of Acute Phase Takotsubo Syndrome: a Human Study

Accumulating evidence indicates alteration of the β-adrenoceptor (AR), such as desensitization and subtype switching of its coupling G protein, plays a role in the protection against catecholamine toxicity in heart failure. However, in human takotsubo syndrome (TTS), which is associated with a surge of circulating catecholamine in the acute phase, there is no histologic evidence...

Mass screening for liver cancer: results from a demonstration screening project in Zhongshan City, China

Current Chinese national guidelines recommend routine screening for liver cancer in patients positive for HBsAg, irrespective of fibrosis status, age, or family history of liver cancer. We aim to evaluate whether the recommended screening strategy could reduce liver-cancer-specific mortality. We conducted a liver cancer mass screening trial in Xiaolan Town, Zhongshan City, China...

Electrophilic nitroalkene-tocopherol derivatives: synthesis, physicochemical characterization and evaluation of anti-inflammatory signaling responses

Inflammation plays a major role in the onset and development of chronic non-communicable diseases like obesity, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Combined, these diseases represent the most common causes of death worldwide, thus development of novel pharmacological approaches is crucial. Electrophilic nitroalkenes derived from fatty acids are formed endogenously and exert anti...

Shifting patterns of seasonal influenza epidemics

Seasonal waves of influenza display a complex spatiotemporal pattern resulting from the interplay of biological, sociodemographic, and environmental factors. At country level many studies characterized the robust properties of annual epidemics, depicting a typical season. Here we analyzed season-by-season variability, introducing a clustering approach to assess the deviations...

Prevention of posterior capsule opacification through intracapsular hydrogen peroxide or distilled water treatment in human donor tissue

In order to determine whether posterior capsule opacification after cataract surgery, could be delayed or inhibited through the application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or distilled water (H2Od),we extracted lens capsules from 25 human donor eye globes. Samples were treated for 5 min with either 30 mM H2O2 or H2Od or used as controls, and cultured for one month, during which dark...

Holocene centennial to millennial shifts in North-Atlantic storminess and ocean dynamics

The forcing mechanisms responsible for centennial to millennial variability of mid-latitude storminess are still poorly understood. On decadal scales, the present-day geographic variability of North-Atlantic storminess responds to latitudinal shifts of the North-Atlantic westerly wind-belt under the prime control of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). An equivalent mechanism...

Impact of pore anisotropy on the thermal conductivity of porous Si nanowires

Porous materials display enhanced scattering mechanisms that greatly influence their transport properties. Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) enables fabrication of porous silicon nanowires starting from a doped Si wafer by using a metal template that catalyzes the etching process. Here, we report on the low thermal conductivity (κ) of individual porous Si nanowires (NWs...

Bolometric photodetection using plasmon-assisted resistivity change in vanadium dioxide

Vanadium oxide is a key sensing material for bolometric photodetection, thanks to its strong temperature dependence of resistivity close to room temperature. Here we demonstrate the photodetection of a stoichiometric vanadium dioxide thin film integrated with silver nanorods. The nanorods convert light into heat, consequently suppressing the resistivity of vanadium dioxide via...

Instant Clue: A Software Suite for Interactive Data Visualization and Analysis

The development of modern high-throughput instrumentation and improved core facility infrastructures leads to an accumulation of large amounts of scientific data. However, for a majority of scientists the comprehensive analysis and visualization of their data goes beyond their expertise. To reduce this hurdle, we developed a software suite called Instant Clue that helps...

Plant domestication decreases both constitutive and induced chemical defences by direct selection against defensive traits

Studies reporting domestication effects on plant defences have focused on constitutive, but not on induced defences. However, theory predicts a trade-off between constitutive (CD) and induced defences (ID), which intrinsically links both defensive strategies and argues for their joint consideration in plant domestications studies. We measured constitutive and induced...