Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 15,931)

Plant domestication decreases both constitutive and induced chemical defences by direct selection against defensive traits

Studies reporting domestication effects on plant defences have focused on constitutive, but not on induced defences. However, theory predicts a trade-off between constitutive (CD) and induced defences (ID), which intrinsically links both defensive strategies and argues for their joint consideration in plant domestications studies. We measured constitutive and induced...

α-Gal on the protein surface affects uptake and degradation in immature monocyte derived dendritic cells

Red meat allergy is characterized by an IgE response against the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal), which is abundantly expressed on glycoproteins from non-primate mammals. The mechanisms of how α-Gal is processed and presented to the immune system to initiate an allergic reaction are still unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal whether the presence of α-Gal...

Comparison of the effectiveness of four Budyko-based methods in attributing long-term changes in actual evapotranspiration

The responses of hydrological processes to climate change and anthropogenic influence have received significant attention over the past few decades. Several Budyko-based methods have been widely used to attribute hydrological variations and identify the extent of variation due to climate change and human activities. However, the accuracy of various methods has rarely been...

Dynamic robustness of endoreversible Carnot refrigerator working in the maximum performance per cycle time

In this work, we study the dynamic robustness of an endoreversible Carnot cycle working at the maximum per-unit-time performance regime, based on the linearization technique for dynamical systems and the local stability analysis. Our analysis is focused on the endoreversible Carnot refrigerator model, which works in the maximum per-unit-time coefficient of performance. At the...

Preverbal infants utilize cross-modal semantic congruency in artificial grammar acquisition

Learning in a multisensory world is challenging as the information from different sensory dimensions may be inconsistent and confusing. By adulthood, learners optimally integrate bimodal (e.g. audio-visual, AV) stimulation by both low-level (e.g. temporal synchrony) and high-level (e.g. semantic congruency) properties of the stimuli to boost learning outcomes. However, it is...

In Vitro Modulation of Redox and Metabolism Interplay at the Brain Vascular Endothelium: Genomic and Proteomic Profiles of Sulforaphane Activity

Sulforaphane (SFN) has been shown to protect the brain vascular system and effectively reduce ischemic injuries and cognitive deficits. Given the robust cerebrovascular protection afforded by SFN, the objective of this study was to profile these effects in vitro using primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells and focusing on cellular redox, metabolism and detoxification...

3D Optical Vortex Trapping of Plasmonic Nanostructure

3D optical vortex trapping upon a polystyrene nanoparticle (NP) by a 1D gold dimer array is studied theoretically. The optical force field shows that the trapping mode can be contact or non-contact. For the former, the NP is attracted toward a corresponding dimer. For the latter, it is trapped toward a stagnation point of zero force with a 3D spiral trajectory, revealing optical...

Unraveling local tissue changes within severely injured skeletal muscles in response to MSC-based intervention using MALDI Imaging mass spectrometry

Pre-clinical and clinical studies are now beginning to demonstrate the high potential of cell therapies in enhancing muscle regeneration. We previously demonstrated functional benefit after the transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC-TX) into a severe muscle crush trauma model. Despite our increasing understanding of the molecular and cellular...

Dynamic generation and modulation of acoustic bottle-beams by metasurfaces

Acoustic bottle-beams have been realized by acoustic metasurfaces (AMs) composed of space-coiling subunits. By manipulating the transmitted acoustical phase, the special AM can generate two intersecting accelerating beams along the designed convex trajectories, forming the acoustic bottle-beam. The transmitted acoustic bottle-beams are investigated theoretically and demonstrated...

Multilayer Optimization for the Quantum Internet

We define a multilayer optimization method for the quantum Internet. Multilayer optimization integrates separate procedures for the optimization of the quantum layer and the classical layer of the quantum Internet. The multilayer optimization procedure defines advanced techniques for the optimization of the layers. The optimization of the quantum layer covers the minimization of...

The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 negatively regulates presentation of immune complex derived antigens

A C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism within PTPN22 (which encodes PTPN22R620W) is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Many of the associated autoimmune diseases have an autoantibody component to their pathology. Fc receptors (FcRs) recognise autoantibodies when they bind to autoantigens...

MicroRNA 375 modulates hyperglycemia-induced enteric glial cell apoptosis and Diabetes-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction by targeting Pdk1 and repressing PI3K/Akt pathway

Diabetic neuropathy can damage systemic nervous system, including alteration of enteric nervous system and subsequent gastrointestinal dysfunction. The effect of diabetes on enteric glia cell (EGC) is not clear. We investigated the effect of diabetes and hyperglycemia on EGC, and the role of microRNA375 in modulating EGC survival in vivo and in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced...

Consistent visuomotor adaptations and generalizations can be achieved through different rotations of robust motor modules

Humans can adapt their motor commands in response to alterations in the movement environment. This is achieved by tuning different motor primitives, generating adaptations that can be generalized also to relevant untrained scenarios. A theory of motor primitives has shown that natural movements can be described as combinations of muscle synergies. Previous studies have shown that...

Chromatin de-condensation by switching substrate elasticity

Mechanical properties of the cellular environment are known to influence cell fate. Chromatin de-condensation appears as an early event in cell reprogramming. Whereas the ratio of euchromatin versus heterochromatin can be increased chemically, we report herein for the first time that the ratio can also be increased by purely changing the mechanical properties of the...

Diagnostics of autoimmune neurodegeneration using fluorescent probing

The discovery of antibody-mediated catalysis was a breakthrough that showed antibody function is not limited to specific binding interactions, and that immunoglobulins (Igs) may also chemically transform their target antigens. Recently, so-called “natural catalytic antibodies” have been intimately linked with several pathologies, where they either protect the organism or...

Entangled Quantum Dynamics of Many-Body Systems using Bohmian Trajectories

Bohmian mechanics is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that describes the motion of quantum particles with an ensemble of deterministic trajectories. Several attempts have been made to utilize Bohmian trajectories as a computational tool to simulate quantum systems consisting of many particles, a very demanding computational task. In this paper, we present a novel ab-initio...

Perception of an ambiguous figure is affected by own-age social biases

Although the perception of faces depends on low-level neuronal processes, it is also affected by high-level social processes. Faces from a social in-group, such as people of a similar age, receive more in-depth processing and are processed holistically. To explore whether own-age biases affect subconscious face perception, we presented participants with the young/old lady...

Urine neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin predicts outcome and renal failure in open and endovascular thoracic abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

Urine neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (uNGAL) has been evaluated as a biomarker for AKI detection and adverse outcome in open and endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. This observational, retrospective study included 52 patients. UNGAL was measured peri-operatively (48 h) and correlated with AKI requiring dialysis, tracheotomy and adverse outcome. Mean...

Structural basis for polymerase η–promoted resistance to the anticancer nucleoside analog cytarabine

Cytarabine (AraC) is an essential chemotherapeutic for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and resistance to this drug is a major cause of treatment failure. AraC is a nucleoside analog that differs from 2′-deoxycytidine only by the presence of an additional hydroxyl group at the C2′ position of the 2′-deoxyribose. The active form of the drug AraC 5′-triphosphate (AraCTP) is utilized by...

Area dependent behavior of bathocuproine (BCP) as cathode interfacial layers in organic photovoltaic cells

Standard and inverted configuration small molecule OPV cells incorporating bathocuproine (BCP) as electron transport and exciton blocking layer is investigated, demonstrating that 2 mm2 standard and inverted cells display a maximum performance for BCP thicknesses of 10 nm and 1.5 nm, respectively. The reason for the different optimum BCP thicknesses for the two device...

Biogenic amines analysis and microbial contribution in traditional fermented food of Douchi

Biogenic amines (BAs) have been reported to threaten the Douchi safety, while the BAs formation mechanism and corresponding control method have not been clarified for Douchi. The present study aims to investigate the microbial contribution to BAs in Douchi, and to find the beneficial strain for BAs control. Firstly, the BAs profiles of 15 Douchi samples were analyzed, and common...

Examining the viability of dorsal fin pigmentation for individual identification of poorly-marked delphinids

Dolphin photo-identification has traditionally relied only on distinctive markings on the dorsal fin—this is problematic for delphinids whose populations exhibit a low mark ratio. We used common dolphins (genus Delphinus) as a model species to assess the viability of using pigmentation for photo-identification. Using a photo-identification catalogue of 169 adult individuals...

Astrocyte-specific overexpression of Nrf2 protects against optic tract damage and behavioural alterations in a mouse model of cerebral hypoperfusion

Mouse models have shown that cerebral hypoperfusion causes white matter disruption and memory impairment relevant to the study of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. The associated mechanisms include inflammation and oxidative stress are proposed to drive disruption of myelinated axons within hypoperfused white matter. The aim of this study was to determine if increased...

Single compounds elicit complex behavioural responses in wild, free-ranging rats

There is mounting evidence that single compounds can act as signals and cues for mammals and that when presented at their optimal concentration they can elicit behavioural responses that replicate those recorded for complex mixtures like gland secretions and foods. We designed a rapid bioassay to present nine compounds that we had previously identified in foods, each at seven...

A nonlinear updating algorithm captures suboptimal inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise

Bayesian models have advanced the idea that humans combine prior beliefs and sensory observations to optimize behavior. How the brain implements Bayes-optimal inference, however, remains poorly understood. Simple behavioral tasks suggest that the brain can flexibly represent probability distributions. An alternative view is that the brain relies on simple algorithms that can...