Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 837)

Depression is associated with enhanced aversive Pavlovian control over instrumental behaviour

The dynamic modulation of instrumental behaviour by conditioned Pavlovian cues is an important process in decision-making. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are known to exhibit mood-congruent biases in information processing, which may occur due to Pavlovian influences, but this hypothesis has never been tested directly in an unmedicated sample. To address this we...

Large-scale synthesis of free-standing N-doped graphene using microwave plasma

Direct assembling of N-graphene, i.e. nitrogen doped graphene, in a controllable manner was achieved using microwave plasmas at atmospheric pressure conditions. The synthesis is accomplished via a single step using ethanol and ammonia as carbon and nitrogen precursors. Tailoring of the high-energy density plasma environment results in a selective synthesis of N-graphene (~0.4...

Functional diversity of TMPRSS6 isoforms and variants expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

TMPRSS6, also known as matriptase-2, is a type II transmembrane serine protease that plays a major role in iron homeostasis by acting as a negative regulator of hepcidin production through cleavage of the BMP co-receptor haemojuvelin. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA), an iron metabolism disorder, is associated with mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene. By analysing RNA...

Modelling electron-phonon interactions in graphene with curved space hydrodynamics

We introduce a different perspective describing electron-phonon interactions in graphene based on curved space hydrodynamics. Interactions of phonons with charge carriers increase the electrical resistivity of the material. Our approach captures the lattice vibrations as curvature changes in the space through which electrons move following hydrodynamic equations. In this picture...

KLF6 and STAT3 co-occupy regulatory DNA and functionally synergize to promote axon growth in CNS neurons

The failure of axon regeneration in the CNS limits recovery from damage and disease. Members of the KLF family of transcription factors can exert both positive and negative effects on axon regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that forced expression of KLF6 promotes axon regeneration by corticospinal tract neurons in the injured spinal cord. RNA...

Influence of the external field on the excitation properties of plasmon in linear atomic chain

Based on the self-consistent linear response theory, the plasmon-energy absorption in linear atomic chain are studied by using the tight-binding approximation. Results indicate that the eigen-frequency of the plasmon is uninfluenced by the external electric potential, but the plasmon modes excited by various electric potentials are obviously different. Each mode of plasmon...

Detection and biochemical characterization of insecticide resistance in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Guangdong of China

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most damaging pests of citrus-producing regions throughout the world. The use of insecticides is the main strategy for controlling psyllid and has increased year by year. In this study, four field populations of D. citri were evaluated for resistance to nine different insecticides using the leaf-dip method. The...

Economic Decision-Making in Parrots

Economic decision-making involves weighing up differently beneficial alternatives to maximise payoff. This sometimes requires the ability to forego one’s desire for immediate satisfaction. This ability is considered cognitively challenging because it not only requires inhibiting impulses, but also evaluating expected outcomes in order to decide whether waiting is worthwhile. We...

Readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR for the evaluation of aggressive characteristics of rectal cancer

To evaluate whether aggressive characteristics of rectal cancer can be predicted by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained using readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance. We enrolled one hundred and fifteen patients. The image quality of ADC maps by rs-EPI was compared with that by traditional single-shot echo-planar imaging...

Crowding for faces is determined by visual (not holistic) similarity: Evidence from judgements of eye position

Crowding (the disruption of object recognition in clutter) presents the fundamental limitation on peripheral vision. For simple objects, crowding is strong when target/flanker elements are similar and weak when they differ – a selectivity for target-flanker similarity. In contrast, the identification of upright holistically-processed face stimuli is more strongly impaired by...

Symptoms and health-related quality of life in Japanese patients with primary biliary cholangitis

Although patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) experience a variety of symptoms that could impair health-related quality of life (HRQOL), no studies regarding symptoms and impact of PBC on HRQOL have been performed in Asian countries. Herein, we aimed to evaluate symptoms and HRQOL in Japanese PBC patients. We performed a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional...

Alterations of 63 hub genes during lingual carcinogenesis in C57BL/6J mice

To identify potential biomarkers of lingual cancer, 75 female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 16-week oral delivery of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO; 50 mg/L), with 10 mice used as controls. Lingual mucosa samples representative of normal tissue (week 0) and early (week 12) and advanced (week 28) tumorigenesis were harvested for microarray and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation...

Optical Characterization of Neurosurgical Operating Microscopes: Quantitative Fluorescence and Assessment of PpIX Photobleaching

Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is increasingly used as a fluorescent marker for fluorescence-guided resection of malignant gliomas. Understanding how the properties of the excitation light source and PpIX fluorescence interact with the surgical microscope is critical for effective use of the fluorescence-guided tumor resection technique. In this...

Quantum work statistics, Loschmidt echo and information scrambling

A universal relation is established between the quantum work probability distribution of an isolated driven quantum system and the Loschmidt echo dynamics of a two-mode squeezed state. When the initial density matrix is canonical, the Loschmidt echo of the purified double thermofield state provides a direct measure of information scrambling and can be related to the analytic...

Deformation mechanism of innovative 3D chiral metamaterials

Rational design of artificial microstructured metamaterials with advanced mechanical and physical properties that are not accessible in nature materials is very important. Making use of node rotation and ligament bending deformation features of chiral materials, two types of innovative 3D chiral metamaterials are proposed, namely chiral- chiral- antichiral and chiral- antichiral...

Improvement of vascular dysfunction by argirein through inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis associated with ET-1/Nox4 signal pathway in diabetic rats

Endothelial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathophysiological mechanism of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Argirein, a new synthetic compound was demonstrated to inactivate NADPH oxidase to alleviate cardiac dysfunction in T2DM. Here, we investigated whether argirein medication attenuated the vascular dysfunction in T2DM by inhibiting...

Nanospikes-mediated Anomalous Dispersities of Hydropobic Micro-objects and their Application for Oil Emulsion Cleaning

Many fields of applications require dispersion of hydrophobic particles in water, which is traditionally achieved by using surfactants or amphiphilic molecules to modify particle surfaces. However, surfactants or amphiphilic molecules may disturb the native solution or particles’ surface hydrophobicity, limiting extended applications such as oil emulsion cleaning. Recently one...

Live-stream characterization of cadmium-induced cell death using visible CdTe-QDs

Characterization of cell death currently requires the use of indirect markers, which has largely limited the ability to monitor cell death processes inside the cell. Here, we introduce a new method for the characterization of cell death mechanisms using cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs). Using visible CdTe-QDs with mesenchymal cells (e.g. synoviocytes), live-stream...

In vitro and in vivo evidences for innate immune stimulators lactic acid bacterial starters isolated from fermented camel dairy products

Probiotics are commensals with special characteristics that are essential for the development of the immune system, and may protect mucosal surfaces against pathogens. In this study, a total of 40 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from different raw and fermented camel’s milk samples collected from Saudi Arabia (Makkah area) and Egypt (Fayoum), and tested for the probiotic...

Targeting protein-protein interactions for therapeutic discovery via FRET-based high-throughput screening in living cells

We have developed a structure-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method, using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) that is sensitive to protein-protein interactions in living cells. The membrane protein complex between the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA2a) and phospholamban (PLB), its Ca-dependent regulator, is a validated...

Gut microbiota composition and butyrate production in children affected by non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy

Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the earliest and most common food allergy and can be elicited by both IgE- or non-IgE-mediated mechanism. We previously described dysbiosis in children with IgE-mediated CMA and the effect of dietary treatment with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (EHCF) alone or in combination with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). On the...

Mutant allele quantification reveals a genetic basis for TP53 mutation-driven castration resistance in prostate cancer cells

The concept that human cancer is in essence a genetic disease driven by gene mutations has been well established, yet its utilization in functional studies of cancer genes has not been fully explored. Here, we describe a simple genetics-based approach that can quickly and sensitively reveal the effect of the alteration of a gene of interest on the fate of its host cells within a...

The underlying microbial mechanism of epizootic rabbit enteropathy triggered by a low fiber diet

Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) is reproduced successfully in the present study by feeding rabbits a low-fibre diet, and high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis were applied to examine the microbial variations in the stomach, small intestine and caecum. The evenness was disturbed and the richness was decreased in the ERE groups. When the...

Geographic differences in obesity prevalence and its risk factors among Asian Americans: findings from the 2013–2014 California Health Interview Survey

Geography disparities exist in obesity and obesity related conditions. This study aimed to examine the geographic differences in obesity prevalence and its risk factors among Asian Americans in California. Data (n = 4,000) from the 2013–2014 California Health Interview Survey were used. Obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2) was defined according to the World Health Organization Asian body mass...

The small heat shock protein HSPB1 protects mice from sepsis

In vitro studies have implicated the small heat shock protein HSPB1 in a range of physiological functions. However, its in vivo relevance is unclear as the phenotype of unstressed HSPB1−/− mice is unremarkable. To determine the impact of HSPB1 in injury, HSPB1−/− and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Ten-day...