Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 17,988)

The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 negatively regulates presentation of immune complex derived antigens

A C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism within PTPN22 (which encodes PTPN22R620W) is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Many of the associated autoimmune diseases have an autoantibody component to their pathology. Fc receptors (FcRs) recognise autoantibodies when they bind to autoantigens...

MicroRNA 375 modulates hyperglycemia-induced enteric glial cell apoptosis and Diabetes-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction by targeting Pdk1 and repressing PI3K/Akt pathway

Diabetic neuropathy can damage systemic nervous system, including alteration of enteric nervous system and subsequent gastrointestinal dysfunction. The effect of diabetes on enteric glia cell (EGC) is not clear. We investigated the effect of diabetes and hyperglycemia on EGC, and the role of microRNA375 in modulating EGC survival in vivo and in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced...

Consistent visuomotor adaptations and generalizations can be achieved through different rotations of robust motor modules

Humans can adapt their motor commands in response to alterations in the movement environment. This is achieved by tuning different motor primitives, generating adaptations that can be generalized also to relevant untrained scenarios. A theory of motor primitives has shown that natural movements can be described as combinations of muscle synergies. Previous studies have shown that...

Chromatin de-condensation by switching substrate elasticity

Mechanical properties of the cellular environment are known to influence cell fate. Chromatin de-condensation appears as an early event in cell reprogramming. Whereas the ratio of euchromatin versus heterochromatin can be increased chemically, we report herein for the first time that the ratio can also be increased by purely changing the mechanical properties of the...

Diagnostics of autoimmune neurodegeneration using fluorescent probing

The discovery of antibody-mediated catalysis was a breakthrough that showed antibody function is not limited to specific binding interactions, and that immunoglobulins (Igs) may also chemically transform their target antigens. Recently, so-called “natural catalytic antibodies” have been intimately linked with several pathologies, where they either protect the organism or...

Entangled Quantum Dynamics of Many-Body Systems using Bohmian Trajectories

Bohmian mechanics is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that describes the motion of quantum particles with an ensemble of deterministic trajectories. Several attempts have been made to utilize Bohmian trajectories as a computational tool to simulate quantum systems consisting of many particles, a very demanding computational task. In this paper, we present a novel ab-initio...

Perception of an ambiguous figure is affected by own-age social biases

Although the perception of faces depends on low-level neuronal processes, it is also affected by high-level social processes. Faces from a social in-group, such as people of a similar age, receive more in-depth processing and are processed holistically. To explore whether own-age biases affect subconscious face perception, we presented participants with the young/old lady...

Urine neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin predicts outcome and renal failure in open and endovascular thoracic abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

Urine neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (uNGAL) has been evaluated as a biomarker for AKI detection and adverse outcome in open and endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. This observational, retrospective study included 52 patients. UNGAL was measured peri-operatively (48 h) and correlated with AKI requiring dialysis, tracheotomy and adverse outcome. Mean...

Structural basis for polymerase η–promoted resistance to the anticancer nucleoside analog cytarabine

Cytarabine (AraC) is an essential chemotherapeutic for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and resistance to this drug is a major cause of treatment failure. AraC is a nucleoside analog that differs from 2′-deoxycytidine only by the presence of an additional hydroxyl group at the C2′ position of the 2′-deoxyribose. The active form of the drug AraC 5′-triphosphate (AraCTP) is utilized by...

Area dependent behavior of bathocuproine (BCP) as cathode interfacial layers in organic photovoltaic cells

Standard and inverted configuration small molecule OPV cells incorporating bathocuproine (BCP) as electron transport and exciton blocking layer is investigated, demonstrating that 2 mm2 standard and inverted cells display a maximum performance for BCP thicknesses of 10 nm and 1.5 nm, respectively. The reason for the different optimum BCP thicknesses for the two device...

Biogenic amines analysis and microbial contribution in traditional fermented food of Douchi

Biogenic amines (BAs) have been reported to threaten the Douchi safety, while the BAs formation mechanism and corresponding control method have not been clarified for Douchi. The present study aims to investigate the microbial contribution to BAs in Douchi, and to find the beneficial strain for BAs control. Firstly, the BAs profiles of 15 Douchi samples were analyzed, and common...

Examining the viability of dorsal fin pigmentation for individual identification of poorly-marked delphinids

Dolphin photo-identification has traditionally relied only on distinctive markings on the dorsal fin—this is problematic for delphinids whose populations exhibit a low mark ratio. We used common dolphins (genus Delphinus) as a model species to assess the viability of using pigmentation for photo-identification. Using a photo-identification catalogue of 169 adult individuals...

Astrocyte-specific overexpression of Nrf2 protects against optic tract damage and behavioural alterations in a mouse model of cerebral hypoperfusion

Mouse models have shown that cerebral hypoperfusion causes white matter disruption and memory impairment relevant to the study of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. The associated mechanisms include inflammation and oxidative stress are proposed to drive disruption of myelinated axons within hypoperfused white matter. The aim of this study was to determine if increased...

Single compounds elicit complex behavioural responses in wild, free-ranging rats

There is mounting evidence that single compounds can act as signals and cues for mammals and that when presented at their optimal concentration they can elicit behavioural responses that replicate those recorded for complex mixtures like gland secretions and foods. We designed a rapid bioassay to present nine compounds that we had previously identified in foods, each at seven...

A nonlinear updating algorithm captures suboptimal inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise

Bayesian models have advanced the idea that humans combine prior beliefs and sensory observations to optimize behavior. How the brain implements Bayes-optimal inference, however, remains poorly understood. Simple behavioral tasks suggest that the brain can flexibly represent probability distributions. An alternative view is that the brain relies on simple algorithms that can...

Evaluation of standard field and laboratory methods to compare protection times of the topical repellents PMD and DEET

Mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens, and travellers to disease endemic countries are advised to avoid bites by applying topical repellents. Topical repellents are typically tested either in the arm-in-cage (AIC) test under laboratory conditions or in the field, but not often under both conditions. We, therefore, investigated how two topical repellents, 15% para-menthane...

Depression is associated with enhanced aversive Pavlovian control over instrumental behaviour

The dynamic modulation of instrumental behaviour by conditioned Pavlovian cues is an important process in decision-making. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are known to exhibit mood-congruent biases in information processing, which may occur due to Pavlovian influences, but this hypothesis has never been tested directly in an unmedicated sample. To address this we...

Large-scale synthesis of free-standing N-doped graphene using microwave plasma

Direct assembling of N-graphene, i.e. nitrogen doped graphene, in a controllable manner was achieved using microwave plasmas at atmospheric pressure conditions. The synthesis is accomplished via a single step using ethanol and ammonia as carbon and nitrogen precursors. Tailoring of the high-energy density plasma environment results in a selective synthesis of N-graphene (~0.4...

Functional diversity of TMPRSS6 isoforms and variants expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

TMPRSS6, also known as matriptase-2, is a type II transmembrane serine protease that plays a major role in iron homeostasis by acting as a negative regulator of hepcidin production through cleavage of the BMP co-receptor haemojuvelin. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA), an iron metabolism disorder, is associated with mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene. By analysing RNA...

Modelling electron-phonon interactions in graphene with curved space hydrodynamics

We introduce a different perspective describing electron-phonon interactions in graphene based on curved space hydrodynamics. Interactions of phonons with charge carriers increase the electrical resistivity of the material. Our approach captures the lattice vibrations as curvature changes in the space through which electrons move following hydrodynamic equations. In this picture...

KLF6 and STAT3 co-occupy regulatory DNA and functionally synergize to promote axon growth in CNS neurons

The failure of axon regeneration in the CNS limits recovery from damage and disease. Members of the KLF family of transcription factors can exert both positive and negative effects on axon regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that forced expression of KLF6 promotes axon regeneration by corticospinal tract neurons in the injured spinal cord. RNA...

Influence of the external field on the excitation properties of plasmon in linear atomic chain

Based on the self-consistent linear response theory, the plasmon-energy absorption in linear atomic chain are studied by using the tight-binding approximation. Results indicate that the eigen-frequency of the plasmon is uninfluenced by the external electric potential, but the plasmon modes excited by various electric potentials are obviously different. Each mode of plasmon...

Detection and biochemical characterization of insecticide resistance in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Guangdong of China

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most damaging pests of citrus-producing regions throughout the world. The use of insecticides is the main strategy for controlling psyllid and has increased year by year. In this study, four field populations of D. citri were evaluated for resistance to nine different insecticides using the leaf-dip method. The...

Economic Decision-Making in Parrots

Economic decision-making involves weighing up differently beneficial alternatives to maximise payoff. This sometimes requires the ability to forego one’s desire for immediate satisfaction. This ability is considered cognitively challenging because it not only requires inhibiting impulses, but also evaluating expected outcomes in order to decide whether waiting is worthwhile. We...

Readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR for the evaluation of aggressive characteristics of rectal cancer

To evaluate whether aggressive characteristics of rectal cancer can be predicted by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained using readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance. We enrolled one hundred and fifteen patients. The image quality of ADC maps by rs-EPI was compared with that by traditional single-shot echo-planar imaging...