Human Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/439

List of Papers (Total 343)

South Korea: in the midst of a privacy reform centered on data sharing

With rapid developments in genomic and digital technologies, genomic data sharing has become a key issue for the achievement of precision medicine in South Korea. The legal and administrative framework for data sharing and protection in this country is currently under intense scrutiny from national and international stakeholders. Policymakers are assessing the relevance of...

United States: law and policy concerning transfer of genomic data to third countries

This paper provides an overview of US laws and related guidance documents affecting transfer of genomic data to third countries, addressing the domains of consent, privacy, security, compatible processing/adequacy, and oversight. In general, US laws governing research and disclosure and use of data generated within the health care system do not impose different requirements on...

Evidence of distinct RELN and TGFB1 genetic associations in familial and non-familial otosclerosis in a British population

Otosclerosis is a common form of hearing loss which typically presents in young adults. The disease has a familial, monogenic form and a non-familial form with a more complex aetiology. A previous genome wide association study identified evidence that variants within RELN are associated with the condition. Other genes in which an association has been reported include BMP2, COL1A1...

Complement receptor 1 gene (CR1) intragenic duplication and risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within and surrounding the complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene show some of the strongest genome-wide association signals with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Some studies have suggested that this association signal is due to a duplication allele (CR1-B) of a low copy repeat (LCR) within the CR1 gene, which increases the number of complement C3b/C4b...

Genomic trade-offs: are autism and schizophrenia the steep price of the human brain?

Evolution often deals in genomic trade-offs: changes in the genome that are beneficial overall persist even though they also produce disease in a subset of individuals. Here, we explore the possibility that such trade-offs have occurred as part of the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we provide support for the possibility that the same key genes that have been major...

Copy number variation arising from gene conversion on the human Y chromosome

We describe the variation in copy number of a ~ 10 kb region overlapping the long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) gene, TTTY22, within the IR3 inverted repeat on the short arm of the human Y chromosome, leading to individuals with 0–3 copies of this region in the general population. Variation of this CNV is common, with 266 individuals having 0 copies, 943 (including the...

The ubiquity of pleiotropy in human disease

Pleiotropy has long been thought to be a common phenomenon in the human genome; however, until recently appropriate data was unavailable to test this hypothesis. Prior studies focused on assessing the prevalence of pleiotropy in only small subsets of phenotypes (≤ 53 phenotypes), without a truly comprehensive assessment of pleiotropy in the human genome. In this study, we...

World-wide distributions of lactase persistence alleles and the complex effects of recombination and selection

The genetic trait of lactase persistence (LP) is associated with at least five independent functional single nucleotide variants in a regulatory region about 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene [−13910*T (rs4988235), −13907*G (rs41525747), −13915*G (rs41380347), −14009*G (rs869051967) and −14010*C (rs145946881)]. These alleles have been inferred to have spread recently and present...

Genome-wide compound heterozygote analysis highlights alleles associated with adult height in Europeans

Adult height is the most widely genetically studied common trait in humans; however, the trait variance explainable by currently known height-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from the previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is yet far from complete given the high heritability of this complex trait. To exam if compound heterozygotes (CH) may...

Enrichment of putatively damaging rare variants in the DYX2 locus and the reading-related genes CCDC136 and FLNC

Eleven loci with prior evidence for association with reading and language phenotypes were sequenced in 96 unrelated subjects with significant impairment in reading performance drawn from the Colorado Learning Disability Research Center collection. Out of 148 total individual missense variants identified, the chromosome 7 genes CCDC136 and FLNC contained 19. In addition, a region...

Genetic mutations in RNA-binding proteins and their roles in ALS

Mutations in genes that encode RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have emerged as critical determinants of neurological diseases, especially motor neuron disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). RBPs are involved in all aspects of RNA processing, controlling the life cycle of RNAs from synthesis to degradation. Hallmark features of RBPs in neuron dysfunction include...

A genetic risk score is differentially associated with migraine with and without aura

Although a number of migraine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with small effect size have been identified, little is known about the additive impact of these variants on migraine risk, frequency and severity. We investigated to what extent a genetic risk score (GRS) based on recently published, novel migraine-associated SNPs is associated with migraine prevalence...

The landscape of genetic diseases in Saudi Arabia based on the first 1000 diagnostic panels and exomes

In this study, we report the experience of the only reference clinical next-generation sequencing lab in Saudi Arabia with the first 1000 families who span a wide-range of suspected Mendelian phenotypes. A total of 1019 tests were performed in the period of March 2016–December 2016 comprising 972 solo (index only), 14 duo (parents or affected siblings only), and 33 trio (index...

Global skin colour prediction from DNA

Human skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic predictability of skin colour is limited. Here, we investigate the skin colour predictive value of...

A rare variant in the FHL1 gene associated with X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism

Isolated familial hypoparathyroidism is an extremely rare disorder, which to date has been linked to several loci including mutations in CASR, GCM2, and PTH, as well as a rare condition defined as X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism, previously associated with a 1.5 Mb region on Xq26-q27. Here, we report a patient with hypocalcemia-induced seizures leading to the diagnosis of...

Loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in blood cells is associated with increased risk for disease and mortality in aging men

Recent discoveries have shown that harboring cells without the Y chromosome in the peripheral blood is associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality and disease such as different forms of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, as well as other conditions in aging men. In the entire world, the life expectancy of men is shorter compared to women, a sex difference that has been known...

Estimating the prevalence of functional exonic splice regulatory information

In addition to coding information, human exons contain sequences necessary for correct splicing. These elements are known to be under purifying selection and their disruption can cause disease. However, the density of functional exonic splicing information remains profoundly uncertain. Several groups have experimentally investigated how mutations at different exonic positions...

Intron retention as a component of regulated gene expression programs

Intron retention has long been an exemplar of regulated splicing with case studies of individual events serving as models that provided key mechanistic insights into the process of splicing control. In organisms such as plants and budding yeast, intron retention is well understood as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation. In contrast, in mammalian systems, the extent...

regSNPs-splicing: a tool for prioritizing synonymous single-nucleotide substitution

While synonymous single-nucleotide variants (sSNVs) have largely been unstudied, since they do not alter protein sequence, mounting evidence suggests that they may affect RNA conformation, splicing, and the stability of nascent-mRNAs to promote various diseases. Accurately prioritizing deleterious sSNVs from a pool of neutral ones can significantly improve our ability of...