Pneumonia

http://link.springer.com/journal/41479

List of Papers (Total 76)

Lung function in HIV-infected children and adolescents

BackgroundThe advent of antiretroviral therapy has led to the improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to adulthood and to HIV becoming a chronic disease in older children and adolescents. Chronic lung disease is common among HIV-infected adolescents. Lung function measurement may help to delineate the spectrum, pathophysiology and guide therapy...

Pneumococcal vaccination in older persons: where are we today?

Disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, remains a major source of illness in older persons. Globally, it remains the most important pathogen in respiratory infection deaths.Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines are used extensively in national pediatric programs, whereas a polysaccharide vaccine is used in all age groups, but mainly in the elderly and for high-risk...

Rationale and methods of a randomized controlled trial of immunogenicity, safety and impact on carriage of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines in infants in Papua New Guinea

Background Children in third-world settings including Papua New Guinea (PNG) experience early onset of carriage with a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes, resulting in a high incidence of severe pneumococcal disease and deaths in the first 2 years of life. Vaccination trials in high endemicity settings are needed to provide evidence and guidance on optimal strategies to...

Rocking pneumonia

Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie...

Economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among elderly patients: a Japanese perspective

Background This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors. Methods An administrative database was searched for elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) who had pneumonia (ICD-10 code: J12–J18) and an antibiotic...

Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia among adults in Kenya: a case–control study

Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General...

Case report on a defective antibody response against pneumococcal serotype 9V in a patient with a single episode of pneumonia

Background Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce...

Community-acquired pneumonia in the United Kingdom: a call to action

Pneumococcal disease has a high burden in adults in the United Kingdom (UK); however, the total burden is underestimated, principally because most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are non-invasive. Research into pneumonia receives poor funding relative to its disease burden (global mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and years lived with disability), ranking...

Predictors of pneumococcal carriage and the effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Western Australian Aboriginal population

Background The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering six additional pneumococcal serotypes; however, IPD rates remained high in Aboriginal people in WA. Upper respiratory tract pneumococcal carriage can precede IPD...

Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK1/2 reduces lung inflammation without impairing bacterial clearance in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

This study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a MEK1/2 inhibitor (MEKi) in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The study found that treatment with MEKi reduced alveolar neutrophilic inflammation and led to faster recovery of weight compared to carrier-treated mice, without impairing bacterial clearance. Alveolar macrophages isolated from MEKi...

Atypical bacterial pneumonia in the HIV-infected population

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections by other infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) as their disease progresses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, bacterial pneumonia (the most frequently occurring HIV-associated pulmonary illness) remains a...

Necrotizing pneumonia: an emerging problem in children?

Background In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities and is often accompanied by empyema and bronchopleural fistulae. Review NP in children was first reported in children in 1994, and since then there has been a...

The evidence for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae as a causative agent of childhood pneumonia

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was a major cause of bacterial pneumonia in children prior to the introduction of Hib-conjugate vaccines. The widespread use of Hib-conjugate vaccines has resulted in a significant decline in the number of cases of invasive Hib disease, including bacteraemic pneumonia, in areas where the vaccine has been implemented. In many countries, non...

Development of PCRSeqTyping—a novel molecular assay for typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Background Precise serotyping of pneumococci is essential for vaccine development, to better understand the pathogenicity and trends of drug resistance. Currently used conventional and molecular methods of serotyping are expensive and time-consuming, with limited coverage of serotypes. An accurate and rapid serotyping method with complete coverage of serotypes is an urgent...

Encouraging rational antibiotic use in childhood pneumonia: a focus on Vietnam and the Western Pacific Region

Globally, pneumonia is considered to be the biggest killer of infants and young children (aged <5 years) outside the neonatal period, with the greatest disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. Optimal management of childhood pneumonia is challenging in settings where clinicians have limited information regarding the local pathogen and drug resistance profiles. This...

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in middle-income countries

Background Since 2000, the widespread adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has had a major impact in the prevention of pneumonia. Limited access to international financial support means some middle-income countries (MICs) are trailing in the widespread use of PCVs. We review the status of PCV implementation, and discuss any needs and gaps related to low levels of...

Childhood pneumonia and meningitis in the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea in the era of conjugate vaccines: study methods and challenges

Background Pneumonia and meningitis are common causes of severe childhood illness in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The etiology of both clinical conditions in PNG has not been recently assessed. Changes in lifestyle, provision and access to healthcare, antimicrobial utilization and resistance, and the national childhood vaccination schedule necessitate reassessment. Methods A...

Impact of viral multiplex real-time PCR on management of respiratory tract infection: a retrospective cohort study

Background Significance and clinical utility of multiple virus detection by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) in respiratory tract infection remain unclear. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed how virus detection affected clinical management. During a 27-month period, clinical and laboratory information was collected from all children and adults...

Increased risk of pneumonia in residents living near poultry farms: does the upper respiratory tract microbiota play a role?

Background Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potentially related to particulate matter and endotoxin emissions. We aim to confirm the increased risk of CAP near poultry farms by refined spatial analyses, and we...

Oral versus intravenous clarithromycin in moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia: an observational study

Objectives British Thoracic Society guidelines recommend clarithromycin in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics for patients with community-acquired pneumonia and CURB-65 score 2–5. Intravenous therapy is commonly used but there are few data on whether oral therapy is equally effective. Methods This observational study used propensity matching to compare two groups of patients...

Pulmonary infections in the returned traveller

Pulmonary infections in the returned traveller are a common presentation. A wide variety of infections may present with pulmonary symptoms. It is important for clinicians to differentiate the cause of these symptoms. The risk of contracting certain travel-related pulmonary diseases depends on travel destination, length of stay, activities undertaken and co-morbidities. Some...

Drug-resistant tuberculosis and advances in the treatment of childhood tuberculosis

Over the last 10 years, interest in pediatric tuberculosis (TB) has increased dramatically, together with increased funding and research. We have a better understanding of the burden of childhood TB as well as a better idea of how to diagnose it. Our appreciation of pathophysiology is improved and with it investigators are beginning to consider pediatric TB as a heterogeneous...

Tuberculosis exposure, infection and disease in children: a systematic diagnostic approach

The accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children remains challenging. A myriad of common childhood diseases can present with similar symptoms and signs, and differentiating between exposure and infection, as well as infection and disease can be problematic. The paucibacillary nature of childhood TB complicates bacteriological confirmation and specimen collection is...