Pneumonia

http://link.springer.com/journal/41479

List of Papers (Total 76)

Tuberculosis and pneumonia in HIV-infected children: an overview

Pneumonia remains the most common cause of hospitalization and the most important cause of death in young children. In high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-burden settings, HIV-infected children carry a high burden of lower respiratory tract infection from common respiratory viruses, bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, Pneumocystis jirovecii and...

Global burden of childhood tuberculosis

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed as relatively low with resulting deaths contributing very little to global under-five all-cause mortality, although without rigorous estimates of these statistics the...

Novel vaccination approaches to prevent tuberculosis in children

Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is an underappreciated problem and accounts for 10 % of all TB deaths worldwide. Children are highly susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and interrupting TB spread would require the development of effective strategies to control TB transmission in pediatric populations. The current vaccine for TB, M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin...

Non-adherence to community oral-antibiotic treatment in children with fast-breathing pneumonia in Malawi– secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study

BackgroundDespite significant progress, pneumonia is still the leading cause of infectious deaths in children under five years of age. Poor adherence to antibiotics has been associated with treatment failure in World Health Organisation (WHO) defined clinical pneumonia; therefore, improving adherence could improve outcomes in children with fast-breathing pneumonia. We examined...

How and when to use common biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of death in both the developed and developing world. The very young and elderly are especially vulnerable. Even with appropriate early antibiotics we still have not improved the outcomes in these patients since the 1950s, with 30-day case fatality rates of between 10–12%. Interventions to improve outcomes include...

Carrier priming to improve pneumococcal disease control and reduce the international program’s cost in children

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has the potential to interact with other vaccines containing diphtheria toxin-like antigens (such as those found in the DTP vaccine) upon sequential administration. This is attributed to the similarity of the diphtheria toxoid antigen to the carrier protein used to make PCV, (known as cross reactive material [CRM]) to diphtheria toxin 197 or...

Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia carry different serotypes of pneumococci with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles

Background Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a precursor to pneumococcal diseases including pneumonia. As part of the Kalgoorlie Otitis Media Research Project, we characterised pneumococci isolated from the nasopharynx of Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Methods Between 1999 and 2005, 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children were...

The definition and classification of pneumonia

Following the publication of a volume of Pneumonia focused on diagnosis, the journal’s Editorial Board members debated the definition and classification of pneumonia and came to a consensus on the need to revise both of these. The problem with our current approach to the classification of pneumonia is twofold: (i) it results in widespread empirical, and often unnecessary, use of...

Geographic consistency in dominant, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae genotypes colonising four distinct Australian paediatric groups: a cohort study

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-associated ear and respiratory diseases (including pneumonia) represent a major health burden in many parts of the world. NTHi strains retrieved from the upper airways commonly reflect those found in the lower airways. Despite growing genomic and genotyping data on NTHi, there remains a limited understanding of global and regional NTHi...

A longitudinal study of natural antibody development to pneumococcal surface protein A families 1 and 2 in Papua New Guinean Highland children: a cohort study

Background Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a conserved virulence factor essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to upper respiratory tract (URT) epithelia, is a potential vaccine candidate for preventing colonisation. Methods This cohort study was conducted in the Asaro Valley in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea, of which Goroka town is the...

Prevalence, pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

It is now well recognised that cardiac events occur relatively commonly in patients with acute community-acquired pneumonia. While these events are more frequent in patients with underlying risk factors—such as those with underlying chronic cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities, the elderly, and in nursing home residents—they also occur in patients with no underlying risks...

Macrolide resistance in pneumococci—is it relevant?

Macrolide antibiotics are widely used for a range of indications, including pneumonia. Both high-level and low-level resistance to macrolides is increasing in pneumococci globally. Macrolide resistance in pneumococci is of limited clinical relevance where ß-lactams remain the mainstay of treatment, such as for moderate/severe pneumonia; however, data suggest that macrolides may...

Vaccination for the control of childhood bacterial pneumonia — Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines

Pneumonia in childhood is endemic in large parts of the world and in particular, in developing countries, as well as in many indigenous communities within developed nations. Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccines are currently available against the leading bacterial causes of pneumonia. The use of the vaccines in both industrialised and...

Respiratory infections and pneumonia: potential benefits of switching from smoking to vaping

Abstaining from tobacco smoking is likely to lower the risk of respiratory infections and pneumonia. Unfortunately, quitting smoking is not easy. Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are emerging as an attractive long-term alternative nicotine source to conventional cigarettes and are being adopted by smokers who wish to reduce or quit cigarette consumption. Also, given that the propylene...

Neonatal pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa

Neonatal pneumonia is a devastating condition. Most deaths in sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to preventable diseases, including pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, which together killed an estimated 2.2 million children under the age of 5 years in 2012, accounting for a third of all under-five deaths in this region. Some countries are making progress in reducing mortality...

How best to determine causative pathogens of pneumonia

The biggest recent development in pneumonia diagnostics has been the increased availability and use of nucleic acid detection assays, although this change has brought with it new challenges about the interpretation of positive results. Recognition of the existence of the lung microbiome has challenged the traditional views of pneumonia pathogenesis and may provide the opportunity...

Comparison between diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children in various medical centres across Europe with the United States, United Kingdom and the World Health Organization guidelines

Background The aim of this study was to review the current status and usage of guidelines in the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in European countries and to compare to established guidelines in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods A questionnaire was developed and distributed by the Community...

Antibiotics in childhood pneumonia: how long is long enough?

Improved access to healthcare, vaccines and treatment with antibiotics has reduced global mortality from childhood community-acquired pneumonia. However, as respiratory viruses are responsible for most episodes of pneumonia, important questions remain over who should receive these agents and the length of each treatment course. Worldwide concerns with increasing antibiotic...

Anatomical site-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence determinants

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen globally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is capable of causing a wide range of diseases including sinusitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteraemia, sepsis, and meningitis. While its capsular polysaccharide is indispensible for invasive disease, and opsonising antibodies against the...

Serum and exhaled breath condensate inflammatory cytokines in community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective cohort study

Background The role and relationship between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines represents one of the least studied aspects of the pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at both local (lung) and systemic (blood) levels and their relationship with the severity of the disease on...

Burden of pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older: an Australian perspective

Background The burden of pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older in Australia is not well defined. This retrospective cross-sectional study calculated rates for pneumococcal pneumonia using data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and from the Bettering Evaluation and Care of Health program. Methods Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence was...

Non-infectious mimics of community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of presentation to healthcare facilities. The diagnosis of CAP is usually made in patients with suggestive symptoms, signs, and radiological features. A number of non-infectious conditions, including neoplastic lesions, pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, drug-induced pneumonitis, diffuse alveolar haemorrhage syndromes...

The upper respiratory tract microbiome of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia of unknown aetiology: a pilot study

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiome may play an important role in the development of lower respiratory tract infections. Here, we characterised the microbiome of the nasopharynx and oropharynx of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with unknown aetiology in an attempt to obtain insight into the aetiology of CAP. A random sample of...