Pneumonia

http://link.springer.com/journal/41479

List of Papers (Total 76)

The respiratory microbiota during health and disease: a paediatric perspective

Recent studies investigating the relationship between the microbiota and disease are demonstrating novel concepts that could significantly alter the way we treat disease and promote health in the future. It is suggested that the microbiota acquired during childhood may shape the microbial community and affect immunological responses for later life, and could therefore be...

Acute respiratory infection and bacteraemia as causes of non-malarial febrile illness in African children: a narrative review

The replacement of “presumptive treatment for malaria” by “test before treat” strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness in children who are suspected to have malaria but return a negative parasitological test. The most common cause of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI) in African children...

A review of the role of Haemophilus influenzae in community-acquired pneumonia

In an era when Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is widely used, the incidence of Hib as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has dramatcally declined. Non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains and, occasionally, other encapsulated serotypes of H. influenzae are now the cause of the majority of invasive H. influenzae infectons, including bacteraemic...

Oral abstracts

Salmonella empyema: a case report

Non-typhi Salmonella enterica infection rarely presents as a pleural empyema, with only 31 cases published in the literature over the last century. We report a case of an 85-year-old female with worsening shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain, and a chest radiograph showing a right-sided pleural effusion. Thoracocentesis revealed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to...

Standardisation and evaluation of a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR assay for the rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae can play a significant role in decreasing morbidity and mortality of infection. The accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease is hampered by the difficulties in growing the isolates from clinical specimens and also by misidentification. Molecular methods have gained popularity as they offer improvement in the detection of causative...

Evidence for short duration of antibiotic treatment for non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children — are we there yet? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

Context: The ideal duration of antibiotic treatment for childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not yet been established. Objective: A literature search was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of shorter than 7 days duration of oral antibiotic treatment for childhood non-severe CAP. Data sources: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database. The...

Reflections on pneumonia in the tropics

This review of pneumonia in the tropics is based on experience with respiratory infectons in Papua New Guinea since the 1970s. It discusses ideas, principles, historical aspects of pneumonia research and the need to work with people in the community. In order to understand pneumonia in a tropical setng and evaluate new interventons it is essental to study the ecosystem of the...

Viral pneumonia in adults and older children in sub-Saharan Africa — epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and management

Community-acquired pneumonia causes substantial morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated 131 million new cases each year. Viruses — such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus — are now recognised as important causes of respiratory disease in older children and adults in the developed world following the emergence of...

The role of rapid diagnostic tests in managing adults with pneumonia in low-resource settings

In well-resourced settings the systematic use of rapid diagnostics tests (e.g. pneumococcal urinary antigen test) that define the causal pathogen to direct therapy has not resulted in significantly improved outcomes in adults withpneumonia. The management of pneumonia in many low-resource settings is complicated by a substantial burden of tuberculosis and HIV-associated...

Pneumonia severity scores in resource poor settings

Clinical prognostc scores are increasingly used to streamline care in well-resourced setngs. The potental benefts of identfying patents at risk of clinical deterioraton and poor outcome, delivering appropriate higher level clinical care, and increasing efciency are clear. In this focused review, we examine the use and applicability of severity scores applied to patents with...

The radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children

Despite the importance of paediatric pneumonia as a cause of short and long-term morbidity and mortality worldwide, a reliable gold standard for its diagnosis remains elusive. The utility of clinical, microbiological and radiological diagnostic approaches varies widely within and between populations and is heavily dependent on the expertise and resources available in various...

The diagnosis of pneumonia requires a chest radiograph (x-ray)–yes, no or sometimes?

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a common condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Outcome is improved by early recognition and rapid institution of empirical antibiotic therapy. A number of international guidelines recommend a chest radiograph (x-ray) is obtained when pneumonia is suspected; the argument forwarded is that chest radiographs are...

FREO2: An electricity free oxygen concentrator

The World Health Organization recommends oxygen therapy for children with severe pneumonia, but this essential medicine is unavailable in many health centres in limited-resource settings. To address this need, an appropriate means of oxygen provision will need to be low-cost and robust, require little maintenance and not compete for fuel with other vital functions, and be...

Aetiology of paediatric pneumonia with effusion in the Dominican Republic and the potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

Pleural effusion is a serious complication of pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause. We describe the aetiology of pneumonia with effusion among children in the Dominican Republic before the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in 2013 and the performance characteristics of a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for detecting S...

Delivering vaccines for the prevention of pneumonia — programmatic and financial issues

Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. Vaccines are available against the main bacterial pathogens Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae. There are also vaccines against measles and pertussis; diseases that can predispose a child to pneumonia. Partners such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and...

Advocacy for pneumonia prevention in Korea: a multi-dimensional program organised around World Pneumonia Day

There are limited examples of population-based approaches that engage a broad range of stakeholders for prevention of pneumonia. In 2010, a multi-dimensional public-private partnership was established around World Pneumonia Day (WPD) in Seoul, Korea and included the following components: a) formation of an expert advisory group, b) creation of educational materials tailored for...