Behavioral and Brain Functions

http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/

List of Papers (Total 604)

Behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reinforcer availability: an experimental study using signal detection methodology

Most research on motivational processes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been undertaken in Western Europe and North America. The extent to which these findings apply to other cultural groups is unclear. The current study evaluated the behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reward availability. Forty-one school-aged...

Selective impairments of alerting and executive control in HIV-infected patients: evidence from attention network test

Attention ability can be subdivided into three functionally independent networks, i.e., alerting network, orienting network, and executive network. Previous literature has documented that deficits in attention are a common consequence of HIV infection. However, the precise nature of deficits of attention in HIV-infected patients is poorly understood. Accordingly, the aim of the...

Cognitive behavioural therapy attenuates the enhanced early facial stimuli processing in social anxiety disorders: an ERP investigation

Previous studies of patients with social anxiety have demonstrated abnormal early processing of facial stimuli in social contexts. In other words, patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) tend to exhibit enhanced early facial processing when compared to healthy controls. Few studies have examined the temporal electrophysiological event-related potential (ERP)-indexed profiles...

Neurobehavioral changes in mice offspring exposed to green tea during fetal and early postnatal development

Green tea extract (GTE) has various health promoting effects on animals and humans. However, the effects of perinatal exposure to GTE on the behavioral aspects of offspring have not been elucidated thus far. GTE was provided for pregnant female mice at concentrations of either 20 or 50 g/L, beginning the day of conception until the third week after delivery, postnatal day 22 (PD...

Sex differences in avoidance behavior after perceiving potential risk in mice

Sex has been considered as a potential factor regulating individual behaviors in different contexts. Recently, findings on sex differences in the neuroendocrine circuit have expanded due to exact measurements and control of neuronal activity, while findings on sex differences in behavioral phenotypes are limited. One efficient way to determine the miscellaneous aspects of a...

The social brain network in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a diffusion tensor imaging study

Background Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with a 25-fold increase in schizophrenia. Both individuals with 22q11.2DS and those with schizophrenia present with social cognitive deficits, which are putatively subserved by a network of brain regions that are involved in the processing of social cognitive information...

Logical fallacies in animal model research

Background Animal models of human behavioural deficits involve conducting experiments on animals with the hope of gaining new knowledge that can be applied to humans. This paper aims to address risks, biases, and fallacies associated with drawing conclusions when conducting experiments on animals, with focus on animal models of mental illness. Conclusions Researchers using animal...

Mothers’ pupillary responses to infant facial expressions

Background Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child’s affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers’ affective response to infant facial expressions. Methods Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces...

Drug-induced Parkinson’s disease modulates protein kinase A and Olfactory Marker Protein in the mouse olfactory bulb

Background Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. We investigated whether the drug MPTP produces the olfactory deficits typical of Parkinson and affects the olfactory bulb in mice. Findings Lesioned and control mice were tested for olfactory search, for motor and...

Venlafaxine ameliorates the depression-like behaviors and hippocampal S100B expression in a rat depression model

Background Accumulating evidence has indicated that S100B may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. No published study has examined the effect of the antidepressant drug venlafaxine on S100B in animal models of depression. This study investigated S100B expression in the hippocampus and assessed the effect of venlafaxine on S100B mRNA level and protein expression in...

Scutellaria barbata flavonoids alleviate memory deficits and neuronal injuries induced by composited Aβ in rats

Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Scutellaria barbata flavonoids (SBF) on memory impairment and neuronal injury induced by amyloid beta protein 25–35 in combination with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) and recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 (RHTGF-β1) (composited Aβ) in rats. Methods The composited Aβ-treated model of Alzheimer’s...

Patterns of motor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar Kyoto rats

Background Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats. Methods A total...

A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of visual hallucinations in the human striate cortex

Purpose Human beings frequently experience fear, phobia, migraine and hallucinations, however, the cerebral mechanisms underpinning these conditions remain poorly understood. Towards this goal, in this work, we aim to correlate the human ocular perceptions with visual hallucinations, and map them to their cerebral origins. Methods An fMRI study was performed to examine the visual...

Association of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 polymorphisms with oppositional defiant disorder in a Chinese Han population

Background Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder of school-age population. It is well known that 5-HT dysfunction is correlated with impulsivity, which is one of the common characteristics of ODD. The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2) synthesizes 5-HT in serotonergic neurons of the midbrain raphe. The purposes of this study were to investigate the...

The role of C957T, TaqI and Ser311Cys polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis

Background The association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and schizophrenia has been studied though no conclusive outcomes have been attained. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relation between three polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene (C957T, TaqI and Ser311Cys) and schizophrenia. Methods The search was made in...

Age, environment, object recognition and morphological diversity of GFAP-immunolabeled astrocytes

Background Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus...

A non-targeted metabolite profiling pilot study suggests that tryptophan and lipid metabolisms are linked with ADHD-like behaviours in dogs

Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically...

Visual food stimulus changes resting oscillatory brain activities related to appetitive motive

Background Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes. Methods Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25.4 ± 5.5 years; body mass index, 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 (mean...

Transgenerational effects of paternal heroin addiction on anxiety and aggression behavior in male offspring

Background Heroin addiction is a growing concern, affecting the socioeconomic development of many countries. Little is known about transgenerational effects on phenotype changes due to heroin addiction. This study aims to investigate changes in level of anxiety and aggression up to four different generations of adult male rats due to paternal exposure to heroin. Methods Male...

Relationship among methadone dose, polymorphisms of dopamine D2 receptor and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire in heroin-addicted patients

Background We investigated whether variation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) scores could be used to aid adjustment of daily methadone requirements of heroin addicts. DRD2 TaqI B polymorphisms and TPQ scores were determined in 138 male Taiwanese heroin addicts who were receiving methadone treatment. Borderline index...