Journal of Immunology Research

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/

List of Papers (Total 1,344)

Immunoglobulin λ Gene Rearrangement Can Precede κ Gene Rearrangement

Immunoglobulin genes are generated during differentiation of B lymphocytes by joining gene segments. A mouse pre-B cell contains a functional immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene, but no light-chain gene. Although there is only one heavy-chain locus, there are two lightchain loci: κ and λ.It has been reported that κ loci in the germ-line configuration are never (in man) or very rarely...

Spontaneous Expression of Interleukin-2 In Vivo in Specific Tissues of Young Mice

In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the spectrum of tissues in which interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA and protein are found in healthy, normal young mice. In neonatal animals, IL-2 is expressed specifically by distinct, isolated cells at three major sites: the thymus, skin, and gut. Based on morphology and distribution, the IL-2-expressing cells...

Development and Maintenance of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (Galt): the Roles of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses

GALT can be subdivided into several compartments: (a) Peyer's patches (PP); (b) lamina propria (LP); and (c) intraepithelial leukocyte (IEL) spaces. The B-cell follicles of PP are quiescent in neonatal and germ-free (GF) adult mice. Germinal centers (GC), including sIgA

Immunopathological Basis of Virus-induced Myocarditis

Heart diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), one of the most common heart diseases, may be the consequence of infectionassociated myocardits. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) can be frequently detected in the inflamed heart muscle. CVB3-induced acute myocarditis is most likely the consequence of direct virus...

Neurological Dysfunction Associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Histopathological Brain Findings of Thrombotic Changes in a Mouse Model

The aim of this work was to study the pathological processes underlying neurological dysfunctions displayed by BALB/C mice induced with experimental antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), as we have previously reported. Experimental APS was induced in female BALB/C mice by immunization with a pathogenic monoclonal anticardiolipin (aCL) antibody, H-3 (n=10), or an irrelevant...

Relationship between Pollen Counts and Weather Variables in East-Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

Background: Aeroallergen sampling provides information regarding the onset, duration and severity of the pollen season that clinicians use to guide allergen selection for skin testing and treatment.

The Development of Mouse APECED Models Provides New Insight into the Role of AIRE in Immune Regulation

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy is a rare recessive autoimmune disorder caused by a defect in a single gene called AIRE (autoimmune regulator). Characteristics of this disease include a variable combination of autoimmune endocrine tissue destruction, mucocutaneous candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophies. The development of Aire-knockout mice has...

SNP Analysis of Genes Implicated in T Cell Proliferation in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Previous studies on primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have focused on the role of T lymphocytes as potential effectors of tissue injury. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in lymphocyte proliferation would be responsible for uncontrolled expansion of T cells and autoreactivity. To address this, we genotyped DNA from 154 patients with PBC...

Immunology and Genetic of Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the third trimester of pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality, and fetal death, especially in developing countries, but its aetiology remains unclear. Key findings support a causal role of superficial placentation driven by immune mal maladaptation, which then lead to reduced...

Identification of Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges and Future Directions

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis that affects the adult population. Early diagnosis and treatment are the cornerstones to prevent joint damage and avoid long-term costs and disability. This article reviews the limitations of the currently available tools for the evaluation of patients with early arthritis, including clinical assessment...

Immunomodulatory Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Epithelial Cells during Bacterial Infections

The innate immune system can function under hormonal control. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is an important sexual hormone for the reproductive cycle of mammals, and it has immunomodulatory effects on epithelial cells, which are the first line of defense against incoming bacteria. E2 regulates various pathophysiological processes, including the response to infection in epithelial cells, and...

The LPS Responsiveness in BN and LEW Rats and Its Severity Are Modulated by the Liver

Differences in LPS responsiveness influence the outcome of patients with sepsis. The intensity of the response is highly variable in patients and strain dependent in rodents. However, the role of the liver for initiating the LPS response remains ill defined. We hypothesize that hepatic LPS uptake is a key event for initiating the LPS response. In the present study, the severity...

The Recognition of Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial Functions by Developing T Cells

Neuropeptide signals and specific neuropeptide receptors have been described in the thymus supporting the concept of a close dialogue between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems at the level of early T-cell differentiation. In this paper, we review recent data about neurohypophysial (NHP)-related peptides detected in the thymus from different species. We suggest that we are...

A New Marker on Chicken Hematopoietic Cells is Defined by a Monoclonal Antibody Raised Against a V ß Chain of the Human TCR

In this paper, we show that a mouse monoclonal antibody, 111-427, specific for the V ß 5.3 chain of the human T-cell receptor (TCR) for antigen, also reacts with chicken hematopoietic cells. Our data indicate that the majority of 111-427 positive cells among peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) are thrombocytes. This antibody also recognizes two in vitro cell lines, III-C5, an IL-2...

Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) Is Produced by and Influences the Proliferative Response of Xenopus laevis Lymphocytes

Both TGF/β2 and 5 have been described in the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis and have been cloned from the tadpole-derived fibroblast cell line, XTC. Because TGFβ has such a profound inhibitory effect on the mammalian immune system, this study was performed to determine whether TGFβ: (a) has any in vitro effects on the growth of Xenopus lymphoblasts, and (b) is produced...

Antigen-Independent Maturation of CD2, CD11a/CD18, CD44, and CD58 Expression on Thymic Emigrants in Fetal and Postnatal Sheep

We have compared the expression of CD2, CD11a/CD18, CD44, and CD58 on αβ and γδ T cells emigrating from the fetal and postnatal thymus. We report that both γδ and the CD4

A Protein Binding Specifically to the IgG2b Switch Region

The Abelson-virus-transformed mouse pre-B-cell line 18-81 switches almost exclusively from μ to γ2b. From nuclear extracts of this cell line, we have isolated a factor that specifically binds to Sγ2b. After an eight-step purification scheme, in which different types of DNA-affinity chromatography were used as key elements, we obtained a preparation with two narrowly spaced bands...

Neuropeptides Exert Direct Effects on Rat Thymic Epithelial Cells in Culture

To determine if major thymic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters can directly influence the functional activity of cultured rat thymic epithelium, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters were applied, and intercellular communication, proliferation, and thymulin secretion assessed. After injections of a mixture of lucifer yellow dextran (too large to pass gap junctions) and cascade...

Paraneoplastic Autoimmunity in Thymus Tumors

Autoimmune phenomena are more frequent in thymic epithelial tumors (TET) than in any other human tumor. Mysthenia gravis (MG) is by far the most common autoimmune disease in thymoma patients. MG is characterized by muscle weakness due to autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and CD4

Expression of Growth Hormone Receptors by Lymphocyte subpopulations in the Human tonsil

The ability of human tonsillar lymphoid cells to express growth hormone receptor (hGH-N-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. FITC-coupled recombinant human growth hormone (hGH-N) was used to reveal the receptors, in combination with phenotype markers.

In Vitro Studies on the Trafficking of Dendritic Cells Through Endothelial Cells and Extra-Cellular Matrix

Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen presenting cells (APC) with the unique ability to initiate an immune response. Immature DC are localized in peripheral tissues where they exert a sentinel function for incoming antigens (Ag). After Ag capture and exposure to inflammatory stimuli DC undergo maturation and migrate to regional lymph nodes where the presentation of antigenic peptides...

The Involvement of Laminin in Anti-Myocardial Cell Autoimmune Response in Murine Chagas Disease

The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyophathy associated with Chagas disease is still controversial, although evidence indicates a T cell-dependent autoimmune process. Using a mouse model for chronic Chagas disease, we previously evidenced that hearts grafted within the ears of Trypanosoma cruzi infected syngeneic recipients were rejected through a CD4