Journal of Immunology Research

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/

List of Papers (Total 198)

Spontaneous Expression of Interleukin-2 In Vivo in Specific Tissues of Young Mice

In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the spectrum of tissues in which interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA and protein are found in healthy, normal young mice. In neonatal animals, IL-2 is expressed specifically by distinct, isolated cells at three major sites: the thymus, skin, and gut. Based on morphology and distribution, the IL-2-expressing cells...

Development and Maintenance of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (Galt): the Roles of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses

GALT can be subdivided into several compartments: (a) Peyer's patches (PP); (b) lamina propria (LP); and (c) intraepithelial leukocyte (IEL) spaces. The B-cell follicles of PP are quiescent in neonatal and germ-free (GF) adult mice. Germinal centers (GC), including sIgA

Immunopathological Basis of Virus-induced Myocarditis

Heart diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), one of the most common heart diseases, may be the consequence of infectionassociated myocardits. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) can be frequently detected in the inflamed heart muscle. CVB3-induced acute myocarditis is most likely the consequence of direct virus...

Relationship between Pollen Counts and Weather Variables in East-Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

Background: Aeroallergen sampling provides information regarding the onset, duration and severity of the pollen season that clinicians use to guide allergen selection for skin testing and treatment.

SNP Analysis of Genes Implicated in T Cell Proliferation in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Previous studies on primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have focused on the role of T lymphocytes as potential effectors of tissue injury. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in lymphocyte proliferation would be responsible for uncontrolled expansion of T cells and autoreactivity. To address this, we genotyped DNA from 154 patients with PBC...

Immunology and Genetic of Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the third trimester of pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality, and fetal death, especially in developing countries, but its aetiology remains unclear. Key findings support a causal role of superficial placentation driven by immune mal maladaptation, which then lead to reduced...

Immunomodulatory Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Epithelial Cells during Bacterial Infections

The innate immune system can function under hormonal control. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is an important sexual hormone for the reproductive cycle of mammals, and it has immunomodulatory effects on epithelial cells, which are the first line of defense against incoming bacteria. E2 regulates various pathophysiological processes, including the response to infection in epithelial cells, and...

The LPS Responsiveness in BN and LEW Rats and Its Severity Are Modulated by the Liver

Differences in LPS responsiveness influence the outcome of patients with sepsis. The intensity of the response is highly variable in patients and strain dependent in rodents. However, the role of the liver for initiating the LPS response remains ill defined. We hypothesize that hepatic LPS uptake is a key event for initiating the LPS response. In the present study, the severity...

A New Marker on Chicken Hematopoietic Cells is Defined by a Monoclonal Antibody Raised Against a V ß Chain of the Human TCR

In this paper, we show that a mouse monoclonal antibody, 111-427, specific for the V ß 5.3 chain of the human T-cell receptor (TCR) for antigen, also reacts with chicken hematopoietic cells. Our data indicate that the majority of 111-427 positive cells among peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) are thrombocytes. This antibody also recognizes two in vitro cell lines, III-C5, an IL-2...

Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) Is Produced by and Influences the Proliferative Response of Xenopus laevis Lymphocytes

Both TGF/β2 and 5 have been described in the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis and have been cloned from the tadpole-derived fibroblast cell line, XTC. Because TGFβ has such a profound inhibitory effect on the mammalian immune system, this study was performed to determine whether TGFβ: (a) has any in vitro effects on the growth of Xenopus lymphoblasts, and (b) is produced...

A Protein Binding Specifically to the IgG2b Switch Region

The Abelson-virus-transformed mouse pre-B-cell line 18-81 switches almost exclusively from μ to γ2b. From nuclear extracts of this cell line, we have isolated a factor that specifically binds to Sγ2b. After an eight-step purification scheme, in which different types of DNA-affinity chromatography were used as key elements, we obtained a preparation with two narrowly spaced bands...

Expression of Growth Hormone Receptors by Lymphocyte subpopulations in the Human tonsil

The ability of human tonsillar lymphoid cells to express growth hormone receptor (hGH-N-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. FITC-coupled recombinant human growth hormone (hGH-N) was used to reveal the receptors, in combination with phenotype markers.

In Vitro Studies on the Trafficking of Dendritic Cells Through Endothelial Cells and Extra-Cellular Matrix

Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen presenting cells (APC) with the unique ability to initiate an immune response. Immature DC are localized in peripheral tissues where they exert a sentinel function for incoming antigens (Ag). After Ag capture and exposure to inflammatory stimuli DC undergo maturation and migrate to regional lymph nodes where the presentation of antigenic peptides...

The Involvement of Laminin in Anti-Myocardial Cell Autoimmune Response in Murine Chagas Disease

The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyophathy associated with Chagas disease is still controversial, although evidence indicates a T cell-dependent autoimmune process. Using a mouse model for chronic Chagas disease, we previously evidenced that hearts grafted within the ears of Trypanosoma cruzi infected syngeneic recipients were rejected through a CD4

Peyer's Patches Are Precocious to the Appendix in Human Development

PP are first visible at ∼15.5 wk gestation after which there is a rapid spurt in the development and maturation of lymphoid follicles so that at any given point of time new foci of PP development are continuously formed at a rapid rate. Addition of rows of follicles results in the formation of a PP. Immature PP of younger fetuses have a spongy structure in contrast with the...

Increased Frequency of Pre–Pro B Cells in the Bone Marrow of New Zealand Black (NZB) Mice: Implications for aDevelopmental Block in B Cell Differentiation

Reductions in populations of both Pre-B cell (Hardy fractions D) and Pro-B cells (Hardy fractions B–C) have been described in association with murine lupus. Recent studies of B cell populations, based on evaluation of B cell differentiation markers, now allow the enumeration and enrichment of other stage specific precursor cells. In this study we report detailed analysis of the...

Activated α4 Integrins are Preferentially Expressed on Immature Thymocytes and Activated T Cells

We have identified a novel mAb, SG31, which recognizes the mouse integrin α4 subunit. Unlike the epitopes recognized by other anti-α4 antibodies, the SG31 epitope is expressed on subpopulations of thymocytes and peripheral T cells. After manganese ion, but not phorbol myristic acetate activation, the epitope is induced and expressed on the majority of peripheral T cells. These...

Magnitude of Alloresponses to MHC Class I/II Expressing Human Cardiac Myocytes Is Limited by Their Intrinsic Ability to Process and Present Antigenic Peptides

In this investigation we have explored the relationship between the weak allogenicity of cardiac myocytes and their capacity to present allo-antigens by examining the ability of a human cardiac myocyte cell line (W-1) to process and present nominal antigens. W-1 cells (HLA-A*0201 and HLA-DR β1*0301) pulsed with the influenza A matrix 1 (58-66) peptide (M1) were able to serve as...

The Homogeneous Multiplexed System-a New Method for Autoantibody Profile in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic autoimmune disease leading to immunological aberrations and excessive multiple autoantibody production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multiple autoantibodies in SLE patients utilizing the multiplex system method.

Endometriosis and Infertility: A Multi-cytokine Imbalance Versus Ovulation, Fertilization and Early Embryo Development

Endometriosis is tightly linked to infertility which is manifested at very early or more advanced stages of the gestational cycle. Alteration on the production of a great number of cytokines/growth factors can be accused for problems on ovum maturation, fertilization or implantation. Yet, macroscopically these stages are characterized by the inability of conception. A closer look...

The Diagnostic Utility of Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Matrix Metalloproteinase-3, Rheumatoid Factor, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, and C-reactive Protein in Patients with Erosive and Non-erosive Rheumatoid Arthritis

Objective: To compare the diagnostic utility of laboratory variables, including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with erosive and non-erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Serum Reactivity Against Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase: Increasing the Specificity of Anti-Mitochondrial Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are the serum hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, AMA-positivity can be found in non-PBC sera when lower dilutions are used, thus raising issues about the specificity and sensitivity of the test. AMA reacts primarily with the lipoylated domains of pyruvate dehydrogenase-E2 (PDC-E2) which is highly conserved across species...

Identification of Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges and Future Directions

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis that affects the adult population. Early diagnosis and treatment are the cornerstones to prevent joint damage and avoid long-term costs and disability. This article reviews the limitations of the currently available tools for the evaluation of patients with early arthritis, including clinical assessment...

Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination Against Influenza in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

Vaccination against influenza is currently recommended for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The safety and efficacy of vaccination in patients suffering from rheumatic diseases is still a matter of debate. This review summarizes the studies performed on the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccination in patients with RA as well as the rheumatic complications of the...