Journal of Hematology & Oncology

http://www.jhoonline.org/

List of Papers (Total 790)

Novel agents in the treatment of multiple myeloma: a review about the future

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease that affects plasma cells and can lead to devastating clinical features such as anemia, lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, and renal disease. An enhanced understanding of MM disease mechanisms has led to new more targeted treatments. There is now a plethora of treatments available for MM. In this review article, our aim is to discuss many of the...

Superior anti-tumor activity of the MDM2 antagonist idasanutlin and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax in p53 wild-type acute myeloid leukemia models

Background Venetoclax, a small molecule BH3 mimetic which inhibits the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and idasanutlin, a selective MDM2 antagonist, have both shown activity as single-agent treatments in pre-clinical and clinical studies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we deliver the rationale and molecular basis for the combination of idasanutlin and venetoclax for...

Targeting histone methylation for cancer therapy: enzymes, inhibitors, biological activity and perspectives

Post-translational methylation of histone lysine or arginine residues plays important roles in gene regulation and other physiological processes. Aberrant histone methylation caused by a gene mutation, translocation, or overexpression can often lead to initiation of a disease such as cancer. Small molecule inhibitors of such histone modifying enzymes that correct the abnormal...

Programmed cell death-1 blockade in recurrent disseminated Ewing sarcoma

Background Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a malignant tumour of bone and soft tissue, and although many patients are cured with conventional multimodal therapy, those with recurrent or metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Genomic instability and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression have been identified in EWS, providing a rationale for treatment with agents that block...

Current status and perspectives in translational biomarker research for PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade therapy

Modulating immune inhibitory pathways has been a major recent breakthrough in cancer treatment. Checkpoint blockade antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) have demonstrated acceptable toxicity, promising clinical responses, durable disease control, and improved survival in some patients with advanced melanoma, non...

The clinical application of mesenchymal stromal cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells well known for repairing tissue, supporting hematopoiesis, and modulating immune and inflammation response. These outstanding properties make MSCs as an attractive candidate for cellular therapy in immune-based disorders, especially hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this review, we outline the progress...

Calreticulin-mutant proteins induce megakaryocytic signaling to transform hematopoietic cells and undergo accelerated degradation and Golgi-mediated secretion

Background Somatic calreticulin (CALR), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) mutations essentially show mutual exclusion in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that they activate common oncogenic pathways. Recent data have shown that MPL function is essential for CALR mutant-driven MPN. However, the exact role and the mechanisms of action of CALR...

PU.1 controls the expression of long noncoding RNA HOTAIRM1 during granulocytic differentiation

Background Long noncoding RNA HOX antisense intergenic RNA myeloid 1 (HOTAIRM1) has been characterized as a critical factor in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. However, the essential transcription factor for gene expression of HOTAIRM1 is still unknown. Findings Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed...

iPSC-derived mesenchymal stromal cells are less supportive than primary MSCs for co-culture of hematopoietic progenitor cells

In vitro culture of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPCs) is supported by a suitable cellular microenvironment, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)—but MSCs are heterogeneous and poorly defined. In this study, we analyzed whether MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-MSCs) provide a suitable cellular feeder layer too. iPS-MSCs clearly supported...

Lung tumor exosomes induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in mesenchymal stem cells via NFκB-TLR signaling pathway

Background In tumor microenvironment, a continuous cross-talk between cancer cells and other cellular components is required to sustain tumor progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes, a novel way of cell communication, play an important role in such cross-talk. Exosomes could facilitate the direct intercellular transfer of proteins, lipids, and miRNA/mRNA/DNAs...

Correlation between deletion of the CDKN2 gene and tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in adult Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Background Frequency relapses are common in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph-positive) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) following tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). CDKN2A/B is believed to contribute to this chemotherapy resistance. Methods To further investigate the association between CDKN2 status and TKI resistance, the prevalence of CDKN2 deletions and its correlation...

l-asparaginase-based regimens followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation improve outcomes in aggressive natural killer cell leukemia

Aggressive nature killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is a mature NK-T cell lymphoma with worse prognosis, but optimal treatment is unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the efficacy of l-asparaginase-based regimens for ANKL patients. Twenty-one patients who received dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, l-asparaginase, and etoposide (SMILE) or etoposide, ifosfamide, dexamethasone, and l...

Azacitidine front-line in 339 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia: comparison of French-American-British and World Health Organization classifications

Background The MDS-IWG and NCCN currently endorse both FAB and WHO classifications of MDS and AML, thus allowing patients with 20–30 % bone marrow blasts (AML20–30, formerly MDS-RAEB-t) to be categorised and treated as either MDS or AML. In addition, an artificial distinction between AML20–30 and AML30+ was made by regulatory agencies by initially restricting approval of...

How do we choose the best donor for T-cell-replete, HLA-haploidentical transplantation?

In haploidentical stem cell transplantations (haplo-SCT), nearly all patients have more than one donor. A key issue in the haplo-SCT setting is the search for the best donor, because donor selection can significantly impact the incidences of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, and relapse, in addition to overall survival. In this review, we...

Rheb1 promotes tumor progression through mTORC1 in MLL-AF9-initiated murine acute myeloid leukemia

Background The constitutive hyper-activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways has frequently been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While many inhibitors targeting these pathways have been developed, the anti-leukemic effect was not as robust as expected. As part of the molecular...

A phase II study on the role of gemcitabine plus romidepsin (GEMRO regimen) in the treatment of relapsed/refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients

Background There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment for peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), especially in relapsed or refractory cases, which have very poor prognosis and a dismal outcome, with 5-year overall survival of 30 %. Methods A multicenter prospective phase II trial was conducted to investigate the role of the combination of gemcitabine plus romidepsin (GEMRO...

Third-generation inhibitors targeting EGFR T790M mutation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR T790M mutation leads to resistance to most clinically available EGFR TKIs. Third-generation EGFR TKIs against the T790M mutation have been in active clinical development. These agents include osimertinib...

Therapeutic options in peripheral T cell lymphoma

Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a rare and heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with a very poor prognosis. The standard first-line treatments have resulted in unsatisfactory patient outcomes. With the exception of low-risk anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), the majority of patients relapse rapidly; the current 5-year...

PML-RAR alpha induces the downmodulation of HHEX: a key event responsible for the induction of an angiogenetic response

Background Recent studies indicate that angiogenesis is important in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Among the various AMLs, the bone marrow angiogenetic response is particularly pronounced in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this angiogenetic response are largely unknown. In the present study, we have...

Functional and genetic screening of acute myeloid leukemia associated with mediastinal germ cell tumor identifies MEK inhibitor as an active clinical agent

Background Hematologic malignancies arising in the setting of established germ cell tumors have been previously described and have a dismal prognosis. Identification of targetable mutations and pathway dysregulation through massively parallel sequencing and functional assays provides new approaches to disease management. Case Presentation Herein, we report the case of a 23-year...

Molecular alterations in the TCR signaling pathway in patients with aplastic anemia

Background A previous study has demonstrated a significantly increased CD3ζ gene expression level in aplastic anemia (AA). However, the mechanism underlying the upregulated CD3ζ mRNA expression level and that of T cell activation signaling molecules in AA patients remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the expression levels of the CD3ζ, CD28, CTLA-4, and Cbl-b genes, the SNP...

Discovery and characterization of a novel CCND1/MRCK gene fusion in mantle cell lymphoma

The t(11;14) translocation resulting in constitutive cyclin D1 expression is an early event in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) transformation. Patients with a highly proliferative phenotype produce cyclin D1 transcripts with truncated 3′UTRs that evade miRNA regulation. Here, we report the recurrence of a novel gene fusion in MCL cell lines and MCL patient isolates that consists of...

Case report: mismatch repair proficiency and microsatellite stability in gastric cancer may not predict programmed death-1 blockade resistance

Background Anti-programmed death-1 therapy has poor efficacy in mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR) colorectal cancers; however, its efficacy in pMMR gastric cancers remains undetermined. Here, we report the case of a patient with pMMR and microsatellite-stable gastric cancer who exhibited a partial response to salvage anti-programmed death-1 therapy with pembrolizumab. Case...

Trends in survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in Germany and the USA in the first decade of the twenty-first century

Background Recent population-based studies in the United States of America (USA) and other countries have shown improvements in survival for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) diagnosed in the early twenty-first century. Here, we examine the survival for patients diagnosed with CLL in Germany in 1997–2011. Methods Data were extracted from 12 cancer registries in...

Anti-proliferative effects of T cells expressing a ligand-based chimeric antigen receptor against CD116 on CD34 + cells of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

Background Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a fatal, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm of early childhood. Patients with JMML have mutually exclusive genetic abnormalities in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor (GMR, CD116) signaling pathway. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative...