Protoplasma

http://link.springer.com/journal/709

List of Papers (Total 620)

Karyotype reshufflings of Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrids

Many different processes have an impact on the shape of plant karyotype. Recently, cytogenetic examination of Lolium species has revealed the occurrence of spontaneous fragile sites (FSs) associated with 35S rDNA regions. The FSs are defined as the chromosomal regions that are sensitive to forming gaps or breaks on chromosomes. The shape of karyotype can also be determined by ...

Involvement of metabolic components, volatile compounds, PR proteins, and mechanical strengthening in multilayer protection of cucumber plants against Rhizoctonia solani activated by Trichoderma atroviride TRS25

In the present study, the spread of Rhizoctonia solani-induced disease was limited when cucumber plants were pretreated with Trichoderma atroviride TRS25. The systemic disease suppression was related to TRS25-induced resistance (TISR) induction with simultaneous plant growth promotion. Protection of cucumber was related to enhanced activity of defense enzymes, e.g., guaiacol ...

Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences

In 1981 I established kingdom Chromista, distinguished from Plantae because of its more complex chloroplast-associated membrane topology and rigid tubular multipartite ciliary hairs. Plantae originated by converting a cyanobacterium to chloroplasts with Toc/Tic translocons; most evolved cell walls early, thereby losing phagotrophy. Chromists originated by enslaving a phagocytosed ...

Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of female gametophyte development in Sedum hispanicum L. (Crassulaceae)

Until now, development of the female gametophyte has been investigated only in some species of Crassulaceae using a light microscope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the process of megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis in Crassulaceae in detail. To achieve this, we performed embryological studies on Sedum hispanicum L. (Crassulaceae). ...

Structural and functional diversity of caspase homologues in non-metazoan organisms

Caspases, the proteases involved in initiation and execution of metazoan programmed cell death, are only present in animals, while their structural homologues can be found in all domains of life, spanning from simple prokaryotes (orthocaspases) to yeast and plants (metacaspases). All members of this wide protease family contain the p20 domain, which harbours the catalytic dyad ...

Symbiotic microorganisms in Puto superbus (Leonardi, 1907) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccomorpha: Putoidae)

The scale insect Puto superbus (Putoidae) lives in mutualistic symbiotic association with bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed that symbionts of P. superbus belong to the gammaproteobacterial genus Sodalis. In the adult females, symbionts occur both in the bacteriocytes constituting compact bacteriomes and in individual bacteriocytes, which are dispersed among ...

Calreticulin localizes to plant intra/extracellular peripheries of highly specialized cells involved in pollen-pistil interactions

Calcium (Ca2+) plays essential roles in generative reproduction of angiosperms, but the sites and mechanisms of Ca2+ storage and mobilization during pollen-pistil interactions have not been fully defined. Both external and internal Ca2+ stores are likely important during male gametophyte communication with the sporophytic and gametophytic cells within the pistil. Given that ...

Differences in the fruit structure and the location and content of bioactive substances in Viburnum opulus and Viburnum lantana fruits

Many Viburnum species are popular ornamental shrubs and, simultaneously, highly valued medicinal plants as a source of many bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. Viburnum bark, flowers, and fruits are widely used in traditional and folk medicine, and the fruits of some species are used as cooking ingredients. The knowledge of the microstructure of Viburnum fruits and the ...

Integument cell gelatinisation—the fate of the integumentary cells in Hieracium and Pilosella (Asteraceae)

Members of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella are model plants that are used to study the mechanisms of apomixis. In order to have a proper understanding of apomixis, knowledge about the relationship between the maternal tissue and the gametophyte is needed. In the genus Pilosella, previous authors have described the specific process of the “liquefaction” of the integument cells ...

The discovery of plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling—a personal perspective

DNA and machinery for gene expression have been discovered in chloroplasts during the 1960s. It was soon evident that the chloroplast genome is relatively small, that most genes for chloroplast-localized proteins reside in the nucleus and that chloroplast membranes, ribosomes, and protein complexes are composed of proteins encoded in both the chloroplast and the nuclear genome. ...

Flower palate structure of the aquatic bladderworts Utricularia bremii Heer and U. minor L. from section Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae)

There is an enormous diversity in the structure of the flower palate of the carnivorous rootless genus Utricularia. This study aims to examine the structure of the palates in Utricularia bremii Heer and U. minor L of the Utricularia sect. Utricularia, which have a glandular palate type. In both species, the palate has only one type of glandular trichomes. Because of the occurrence ...

Physiology, phylogeny, early evolution, and GAPDH

The chloroplast and cytosol of plant cells harbor a number of parallel biochemical reactions germane to the Calvin cycle and glycolysis, respectively. These reactions are catalyzed by nuclear encoded, compartment-specific isoenzymes that differ in their physiochemical properties. The chloroplast cytosol isoenzymes of d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) harbor ...

Germline-specific labeling of the somatic chromosomes by protein phosphatase 2A and histone H3S28 phosphorylation in Acricotopus lucidus

Additional chromosomes limited to the germline (=Ks) were established as a special form of germline–soma differentiation in the Orthocladiinae, a subfamily of the Chironomidae (Bauer and Beermann in Z Naturforsch 7b: 557–563, 1952). The Ks together with the somatic chromosomes (=Ss) pass through a complex chromosome cycle with elimination at mitosis and a monopolar migration of all ...

Histone H3 and H4 acetylation patterns are more dynamic than those of DNA methylation in Brachypodium distachyon embryos during seed maturation and germination

The transition of seeds from a dry to a metabolically active state requires significant changes in both the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression, and this transcriptional reprogramming involves various modifications of the chromatin structure. There are several factors that can greatly influence the structure of chromatin, one of which is the chemical modifications of ...

The terrestrial green macroalga Prasiola calophylla (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): ecophysiological performance under water-limiting conditions

The phylogenetic placement of Prasiola calophylla, from an anthropogenic habitat previously shown to contain a novel UV sunscreen compound, was confirmed by analysis of its rbcL gene. This alga has the capacity to tolerate strong water-limiting conditions. The photosynthetic performance and ultrastructural changes under desiccation and osmotic stress were investigated. Freshly ...

A journey through the microscopic ages of DNA replication

Scientific discoveries and technological advancements are inseparable but not always take place in a coherent chronological manner. In the next, we will provide a seemingly unconnected and serendipitous series of scientific facts that, in the whole, converged to unveil DNA and its duplication. We will not cover here the many and fundamental contributions from microbial genetics and ...

RNA processing body (P-body) dynamics in mesophyll protoplasts re-initiating cell division

The ability of plants to regenerate lies in the capacity of differentiated cells to reprogram and re-enter the cell cycle. Reprogramming of cells requires changes in chromatin organisation and gene expression. However, there has been less focus on changes at the post transcription level. We have investigated P-bodies, sites of post transcriptional gene regulation, in plant cell ...