Protoplasma

http://link.springer.com/journal/709

List of Papers (Total 771)

Microstructural and histochemical characteristics of Lycium barbarum L. fruits used in folk herbal medicine and as functional food

Lycium barbarum L. fruits, referred to as functional food, have long been used in traditional and folk herbal medicine due to their therapeutic properties. The fruit microstructure was analysed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The distribution of bioactive compounds in drupe tissues was assessed with histochemical and fluorescence assays. The analysis...

Multigene phylogeny and cell evolution of chromist infrakingdom Rhizaria: contrasting cell organisation of sister phyla Cercozoa and Retaria

Infrakingdom Rhizaria is one of four major subgroups with distinct cell body plans that comprise eukaryotic kingdom Chromista. Unlike other chromists, Rhizaria are mostly heterotrophic flagellates, amoebae or amoeboflagellates, commonly with reticulose (net-like) or filose (thread-like) feeding pseudopodia; uniquely for eukaryotes, cilia have proximal ciliary transition-zone hub...

Oligomeric states in sodium ion-dependent regulation of cyanobacterial histidine kinase-2

Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) consist of sensor histidine kinases and response regulators. TCSs mediate adaptation to environmental changes in bacteria, plants, fungi and protists. Histidine kinase 2 (Hik2) is a sensor histidine kinase found in all known cyanobacteria and as chloroplast sensor kinase in eukaryotic algae and plants. Sodium ions have been shown...

Localization and subcellular association of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus in grapevine leaf tissues

Despite the increasing impact of Grapevine Pinot gris disease (GPG-disease) worldwide, etiology about this disorder is still uncertain. The presence of the putative causal agent, the Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV), has been reported in symptomatic grapevines (presenting stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation) as well as in symptom-free plants. Moreover, information...

Surface pH changes suggest a role for H+/OH− channels in salinity response of Chara australis

To understand salt stress, the full impact of salinity on plant cell physiology has to be resolved. Electrical measurements suggest that salinity inhibits the proton pump and opens putative H+/OH− channels all over the cell surface of salt sensitive Chara australis (Beilby and Al Khazaaly 2009; Al Khazaaly and Beilby 2012). The channels open transiently at first, causing a...

Biominerals and waxes of Calamagrostis epigejos and Phragmites australis leaves from post-industrial habitats

Vascular plants are able to conduct biomineralization processes and collect synthesized compounds in their internal tissues or to deposit them on their epidermal surfaces. This mechanism protects the plant from fluctuations of nutrient levels caused by different levels of supply and demand for them. The biominerals reflect both the metabolic characteristics of a vascular plant...

Nectar and oleiferous trichomes as floral attractants in Bulbophyllum saltatorium Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

Although many Orchidaceae have deceit flowers that produce no reward, the most common reward, when present, is nectar. Bulbophyllum, however, is unusual in that the labellar secretions of most species investigated to date lack sugars, and, therefore, cannot be considered true nectar. The African species Bulbophyllum saltatorium is an exception in that it produces not only nectar...

Karyotype reshufflings of Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrids

Many different processes have an impact on the shape of plant karyotype. Recently, cytogenetic examination of Lolium species has revealed the occurrence of spontaneous fragile sites (FSs) associated with 35S rDNA regions. The FSs are defined as the chromosomal regions that are sensitive to forming gaps or breaks on chromosomes. The shape of karyotype can also be determined by...

Involvement of metabolic components, volatile compounds, PR proteins, and mechanical strengthening in multilayer protection of cucumber plants against Rhizoctonia solani activated by Trichoderma atroviride TRS25

In the present study, the spread of Rhizoctonia solani-induced disease was limited when cucumber plants were pretreated with Trichoderma atroviride TRS25. The systemic disease suppression was related to TRS25-induced resistance (TISR) induction with simultaneous plant growth promotion. Protection of cucumber was related to enhanced activity of defense enzymes, e.g., guaiacol...

Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences

In 1981 I established kingdom Chromista, distinguished from Plantae because of its more complex chloroplast-associated membrane topology and rigid tubular multipartite ciliary hairs. Plantae originated by converting a cyanobacterium to chloroplasts with Toc/Tic translocons; most evolved cell walls early, thereby losing phagotrophy. Chromists originated by enslaving a phagocytosed...

Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of female gametophyte development in Sedum hispanicum L. (Crassulaceae)

Until now, development of the female gametophyte has been investigated only in some species of Crassulaceae using a light microscope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the process of megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis in Crassulaceae in detail. To achieve this, we performed embryological studies on Sedum hispanicum L. (Crassulaceae...

Structural and functional diversity of caspase homologues in non-metazoan organisms

Caspases, the proteases involved in initiation and execution of metazoan programmed cell death, are only present in animals, while their structural homologues can be found in all domains of life, spanning from simple prokaryotes (orthocaspases) to yeast and plants (metacaspases). All members of this wide protease family contain the p20 domain, which harbours the catalytic dyad...

Symbiotic microorganisms in Puto superbus (Leonardi, 1907) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccomorpha: Putoidae)

The scale insect Puto superbus (Putoidae) lives in mutualistic symbiotic association with bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed that symbionts of P. superbus belong to the gammaproteobacterial genus Sodalis. In the adult females, symbionts occur both in the bacteriocytes constituting compact bacteriomes and in individual bacteriocytes, which are dispersed among...

Calreticulin localizes to plant intra/extracellular peripheries of highly specialized cells involved in pollen-pistil interactions

Calcium (Ca2+) plays essential roles in generative reproduction of angiosperms, but the sites and mechanisms of Ca2+ storage and mobilization during pollen-pistil interactions have not been fully defined. Both external and internal Ca2+ stores are likely important during male gametophyte communication with the sporophytic and gametophytic cells within the pistil. Given that...

Differences in the fruit structure and the location and content of bioactive substances in Viburnum opulus and Viburnum lantana fruits

Many Viburnum species are popular ornamental shrubs and, simultaneously, highly valued medicinal plants as a source of many bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. Viburnum bark, flowers, and fruits are widely used in traditional and folk medicine, and the fruits of some species are used as cooking ingredients. The knowledge of the microstructure of Viburnum fruits and the...

Integument cell gelatinisation—the fate of the integumentary cells in Hieracium and Pilosella (Asteraceae)

Members of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella are model plants that are used to study the mechanisms of apomixis. In order to have a proper understanding of apomixis, knowledge about the relationship between the maternal tissue and the gametophyte is needed. In the genus Pilosella, previous authors have described the specific process of the “liquefaction” of the integument cells...

The discovery of plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling—a personal perspective

DNA and machinery for gene expression have been discovered in chloroplasts during the 1960s. It was soon evident that the chloroplast genome is relatively small, that most genes for chloroplast-localized proteins reside in the nucleus and that chloroplast membranes, ribosomes, and protein complexes are composed of proteins encoded in both the chloroplast and the nuclear genome...